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Property of mixture

Property of mixture - CH6 The properties of mixtures The...

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1 CH6. The properties of mixtures The thermodynamic description of mixtures 6.1 Measures of concentration 6.2 Partial molar properties 6.3 Spontaneous mixing 6.4 Ideal solutions 6.5 Ideal-dilute solutions 6.6 Real solutions: activities (will learn in CH9:Electrochemistry) Colligative properties 6.7 The modification of boiling and freezing points 6.8 Osmosis Phase diagrams of mixtures 6.9 Mixtures of volatile liquids 6.10 Liquid–liquid phase diagrams 6.11 Liquid–solid phase diagrams
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Partial molar quantities Partial molar volume : the contribution that a component of a mixture makes to the total volume of a sample Example 1 : Assume a large volume of pure water at 25 o C and add 1 mol of H 2 O, the total volume increases by 18 cm 3 /mol ( V m of pure water ) Example 2 : Assume a large volume of pure ethanol at 25 o C and add 1 mol of H 2 O, the total volume increases by 14 cm 3 /mol (partial molar V m of pure water in ethanol ) Partial molar volume of a substance A in a mixture is the change in volume per mole of A added to a large volume of the mixture It varies with composition because of the molecular environment (different type of forces acting among molecules)
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Total volume of the sample, V Molar volume V m B B A A m B B A A V x V x V V n V n V + = + = Partial molar volume
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Partial molar Gibbs energies The chemical potential μ i is just another name for the molar Gibbs energy. At constant T and p: d d d A A B B G n n = + + ⋅⋅⋅ μ μ + + + - = B B A A d d d d d n n T S p V G μ μ The total Gibbs energy of a binary mixture G n n = + A A B B μ μ ' , , J J n T p n G = μ
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The TD of mixing The dependence of the Gibbs energy of a mixture is given by
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