Pure substance - CH5 Phase equilibria pure substances The...

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1 CH5. Phase equilibria: pure substances The thermodynamics of transition 5.1 The condition of stability 5.2 The variation of Gibbs energy with pressure 5.3 The variation of Gibbs energy with temperature Phase diagrams 5.4 Phase boundaries 5.5 The location of phase boundaries 5.6 Characteristic points 5.7 The phase rule 5.8 Phase diagrams of typical materials 5.9 The molecular structure of liquids
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2 Temperature and pressure dependences The Gibbs energy is of central importance to chemistry At constant T and p a system tends to adjust so as to minimize the value of G Therefore, the equilibrium state of a system corresponds to the state of minimum Gibbs energy State function G =G(T,p): to combine the first and second law of TD
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3 The Fundamental Equations The first law of TD: For a reversible change in a closed system with constant composition in the absence of additional, non-expansion work For a reversible change in a closed system: dU is an exact differential and independent of path and has the same value whether the change is brought about reversibly or irreversibly d d d U q w = + d d d d rev rev w p V q T S = - = d d d U T S p V = -
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4 Properties of the Gibbs energy The same idea that were used for the internal energy U can be applied to the Gibbs energy: G=H-TS When a system undergoes an infinitesimal change in Gibbs energy (dG), the other properties dependending on G also change: For a system doing no additional work, dU in the above
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