Quantum - CH 12. Quantum theory The failures of classical...

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1 CH 12. Quantum theory The failures of classical physics 12.1 Black-body radiation 12.2 Heat capacities 12.3 The photoelectric effect 12.4 The diffraction of electrons 12.5 Atomic and molecular spectra The dynamics of microscopic systems 12.6 The Schrödinger equation 12.7 The Born interpretation 12.8 The uncertainty principle Applications of quantum mechanics 12.9 Translation: motion in one dimension 12.10 Rotation: a particle on a ring 12.11 Vibration: the harmonic oscillator
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2 Microscopic point • Properties of individual atoms and molecules • Build bridge between the microscopic world and the macroscopic world • Describe chemical reactions Relativistic mechanics: very large scales Classical mechanics: everyday scales Quantum mechanics: very small scales
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3 Classical mechanics Quantum mechanics Trajectory Wave function ψ • The velocity, v , vector • The linear momentum, p • The total energy dt r d v a a = v m p a a = ) ( 2 2 x V m p E E E P K + = + =
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4 Electromagnetic Radiation results from charge oscillators which vibrate at particular frequencies ν Where wavelength is λ =c/ ν , c is the speed of light a) High frequency, short- wavelength oscillator b) Low-frequency, long- wavelength oscillator
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5 Failure of classical physics Black body = a object capable of emitting and absorbing all frequencies of radiation uniformly Cool bodies are dark, emit near IR light Hot objects glow with a dull red light cmK 44 , 1 5 1 2 2 max = = c c T λ
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6 Energy density of black-body radiation obeys Stefan-Boltzmann law. In terms of the excitance, M (power emitted by a region of surface/area of surface) is called the Stephan- Boltzmann constant E = E / V 4 2 8 4 K m W 10 . 67 , 5 - = = a T a M Rayleigh-Jeans law fails at low λ ( ) λ π ρ d kT d 4 8 = ( ) : 0 as “ultraviolet catastrophe”
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Quantum - CH 12. Quantum theory The failures of classical...

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