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Unformatted text preview: 1 CH4. Thermodynamics: the Second Law Entropy 4.1 The direction of spontaneous change 4.2 Entropy and the Second Law 4.3 The entropy change accompanying expansion 4.4 The entropy change accompanying heating 4.5 The entropy change accompanying a phase transition 4.6 Entropy changes in the surroundings 4.7 Absolute entropies and the Third Law of thermodynamics 4.8 The standard reaction entropy 4.9 The spontaneity of chemical reactions The Gibbs energy 4.10 Focusing on the system 4.11 Properties of the Gibbs energy 2 Introduction • Spontaneous direction Spontaneous direction of change is the direction that does not require work to be done to bring change about. • A ball bouncing on a floor The chaotic dispersal of matter • The recognition of two classes of processes, spontaneous and non spontaneous is summarized by the Second Law of TD the Second Law of TD (formulated by Kelvin): No No process is possible in which the sole result is the absorption of process is possible in which the sole result is the absorption of heat from a reservoir and its complete conversion into work heat from a reservoir and its complete conversion into work 3 Introduction • It has proved impossible to construct an engine like that It has proved impossible to construct an engine like that show in Fig. in which heat is drawn from a hot reservoir and show in Fig. in which heat is drawn from a hot reservoir and completely convert into work completely convert into work 4 Entropy, S • Entropy is the TD property that describes the disorderly disposal of the total energy of an isolated system...
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course CHEM 3050 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Kennesaw.
 Spring '08
 STAFF
 Physical chemistry, pH

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