Ethical.Conc.hx nuremberg etc.Res#2

Ethical.Conc.hx nuremberg etc.Res#2 - Ethical Concerns in...

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Ethical Concerns in Research Ethical Concerns in Research Ethical standards providing direction for conducting research Researchers must consider the ethical principles and regulations that guide research activities
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Basis of Ethics in Research Basis of Ethics in Research Integrity of scientific method is founded on the professional conduct of the researcher Dishonest, fraudulent or unethical researches can circumvent the scientific method Without moral principles, protective measures and a system of ethical standards that oblige researchers to follow certain rules, scientific misconduct and dishonestly will occur Existence of ethical standards does not guarantee ethical behavior
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Examples - Unethical Behavior Examples - Unethical Behavior Nazi “Medical” Experiments The “Doctors Trial” - Nuremberg War Crime Trials (Gang of 23) Medical experiments on prisoners, inmates, “others” without consent [cruelties, tortures, other inhuman acts]
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Research atrocities by Nazis, WWII Research atrocities by Nazis, WWII In concentration camps (Dachau) and  killing camps (Auschwitz) Immerse prisoners in cold water  until they died –  the intent of the research Decompress prisoners in high-altitude  chambers  until they died –  the intent of the research Inject many prisoners with typhus  many died Nuremberg Medical Trial, 1946-47 tried 23 defendants (20 physicians) convicted 15
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The Nuremberg Code, Aug. 19,  The Nuremberg Code, Aug. 19,  1947 1947 10 rules for “Permissible Medical Experiments”:  voluntary consent, without coercion,  good science, done by good scientists,  potential benefits justify experiment,  harms minimized,  degree of risk less than potential benefit,  subjects can end their participation, … [and 4 more] A start, but with limited applicability: asked "When is research criminal?" http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/references/nurcode.ht
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After WWII After WWII Radiation experiments (1950s+) Willowbrook (1950s)  deliberately infected mentally retarded children with  hepatitis virus  coercion of parents Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital (1960s)  injected live cancer cells into 22 elderly patients,  some with dementia, some spoke only Yiddish  guardians not asked for permission Lerner BH.  Sins of omission – cancer research  without informed consent.  NEJM   2004; 351(7):628- 630.
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Henry Beecher Henry Beecher 1966 article summarized 22 recent unethical  medical experiments (out of 50 examples  accumulated) in major medical centers, by prominent  researchers, funded by respected sources, 
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course BIOL 4486 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Kennesaw.

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Ethical.Conc.hx nuremberg etc.Res#2 - Ethical Concerns in...

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