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Submit: Research Exercise # 1, and Summary (all drafts) Summary TODAY: Focused research Focused Critical reading for research Evaluating sources Defining search terms Start: Research Exercise # 3 Next: ►Research Exercise # 2 ► CRITIQUE CRITIQUE Critical reading for research Critical Use ALL CRITICAL READING SKILLS suggested so far Use CRITICAL Read for RELATIONSHIPS TO YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION Read RELATIONSHIPS (type research question in big letters, place it in full sight on your study desk; e.g. top of your computer) study Read for RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SOURCES Read RELATIONSHIPS EVALUATE THE LEGITIMACY OF SOURCES especially on the SURFACE WEB SURFACE Re-read MEANINGS OF DIRECTIVE WORDS Re-read DIRECTIVE SAVE, PRINT, and/or PHOTOCOPY important articles (or sections of articles) INCLUDING BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION (i.e. author, title of article, journal or book, and publication information) author, Evaluating sources Evaluating print sources: Is the material recent enough? Is recent Does the author have suitable credentials? Does author credentials Is the material sufficiently scholarly, Is complete, and accessible? Has it been reviewed by the author’s peers? reviewed Is the author expressing fact, opinion, or Is both? both? Does the material manipulate your emotions? Does Is it biased? biased Evaluating web sources Evaluating Is there an author? Is author What are the author's credentials? What author's Is there a sponsoring organization? Is sponsoring What are the sponsoring organization's What credentials? credentials Is there a link to information about the Is link author? author? Is there a link to information about the Is link sponsoring organization? sponsoring Are the links current? Have they expired or Are links Have moved? moved? Evaluating web sources Evaluating If the page indicates neither an author If nor a sponsoring organization, is there any other way to determine the page's origin from the URL? (.edu, .gov, .org, origin (.edu, etc.) etc.) Does the page have a date on it? Does date When was the page last updated? When last Is there any advertising on the page? Is advertising Defining terms Defining Surface vs. deep web Databases Boolean operators Phrase Truncation Surface web Surface Characteristics: BIG UNORGANIZED UNRELIABLE Anyone in the world with a connection (through services like AOL) can put information on the can surface Web for you to view. There is no control no over what can be put on the surface Web. This puts the burden on you to evaluate surface Web evaluate information for its authority, bias, and reliability. Therefore, the surface Web is usually not the best place to find information for your assignments. place Deep web Deep Characteristics: CONTAINED ORGANIZED Mostly RELIABLE The deep Web consists of information kept in The databases created by companies and organizations databases that charge fees for access. The World Wide Web is used to access these databases, but only for access individuals with authorization. Deep Web databases authorization Deep cannot be searched using surface Web search services. services. Databases Databases A computerized database is an computerized electronic filing cabinet electronic The folders in a computerized database The folders are called records records Each record has descriptive fields, such Each fields as, the author of a book, or the title of a magazine in which an article is found. which To find sources through the databases: databases: Use search terms correctly Use search Key words and synonyms or related words Boolean operators Phrase Truncation K ey words and synonyms or related words words A significant or descriptive word or significant phrase used as a reference for finding information about the topic information E.g. Should U.S. citizens who are declared E.g. U.S. to be “enemy combatants” be able to “enemy contest their detention before a judge?” detention judge synonyms or related words synonyms
(more like a thesaurus) U.S. citizens = Americans, American U.S. citizens, native Americans Detention = arrest, custody, imprisonment, Detention captured, trial, litigation, case, acquittal, sentence sentence Judge = American legal system, law, courts, Judge lawcourts, justice, rights, legal process, jury, attorney, jurisprudence, tribunal Boolean operators: and/or/not and/or/not AND = narrows down your results narrows E.g. “affirmative action” AND effect? The computer will display only those The records that have both the phrase both “affirmative action” AND any records that AND begin with effect. begin Boolean operator “ or” Boolean expands your search. The OR operator The retrieves all works that contain any or all of the any search terms it separates. This type of search gets more results than if you search for one of the terms on its own. the E.g. “equal opportunity” OR “fair employment” Retrieves works that contain either one, or the Retrieves other or both. other Boolean operator “ not” Boolean restricts your search. The NOT operator The retrieves all the works that contain the first search term but not the second. search E.g. “climate change” NOT “global E.g. warming” warming” Retrieves works that contain “climate Retrieves change” without any mention of “global warming” warming” PHRASE: PHRASE: A keyword may be keyword two or more words strung together that express a mental picture you have. E.g. “affirmative action” or “fair employment” Quotation marks are common phrase Quotation instructions for many databases instructions Truncation Truncation Use truncation to find all the occurrences of a keyword Use plus all of its possible word endings. plus Because computers are so literal, if you type in the keyword cause, you will not see records containing the cause you word causes because the final “s” makes it a completely causes different word. The question mark after the root of the question word truncates the word. word E.g. caus? = causable, causality, cause, causes, causing, etc. Research Exercise # 3 Research Go to: STEP 3: FIND THREE ARTICLES THROUGH DATABASES (this will be your objective) (this Add: Two scholarly articles and one from a Two trade or popular magazine trade Research Exercise # 3 Research
1) Complete your INFORMATION NEED 2) Circle your keywords 3) Write the keywords on the top line 4) Find synonyms or equivalent terms. Remember to use phrases and truncate the terms the 5) Go to library.gmu.edu … FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS IN THE EXERCISE DIRECTIONS Complete this exercise at home. Y ou will Complete submit it when you come to the conference. submit Remember to save and/or print the sources you Remember save f ind. Continue your research until you find all the Continue sources you need for your research paper (minimum of seven) (minimum ...
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- Spring '07
- English, World Wide Web, Boolean operator, surface web, surface web surface