argumentation

argumentation - TODAY: ARGUMENTATION Friday: Friday TEST...

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Unformatted text preview: TODAY: ARGUMENTATION Friday: Friday TEST TEST M onday: Wednesday : Citations; quote and paraphrase paraphrase Friday: Compare and contrast; Argument paper paper I ntroductions Introductions & conclusions conclusions Analyze the chief rhetorical strategies utilized in the following speech: 1) Identify the targeted audience and the main specific purposes (You will need to read the speech first). 2) Restate the topic in your own words and comment on the clarity of the speech in general. 3) Identify three important ideas and re­state them in complete sentences in your own words. 4) Identify two logical appeals by name (e.g. facts, evidence) and cite the paragraph and line numbers where they can be found. 5) List two ethical appeals and state whether they are determined by moral character, by intelligence, or by good will. 6) List three words or phrases that exemplify the emotional appeals and explain the main effect they produce. 7) Identify one logical fallacy and explain why it is acceptable or unacceptable in this particular speech. 8) List the main rhetorical strategies of presentation of ideas (e.g. chronology, pros and cons, cause and effect, one or more reasons, division­classification, theory & practice, etc). and say why they are effective (or not). pen and paper … pen (you will be writing throughout the class) class) Include these notes in the final Include portfolio (under Paper Preportfolio writings) ARGUMENTATION … is not fighting and need not involve conflict. regardless of your opponent’s views or the evidence. … is not giving your opinion TO ARGUE IS … … TO ATTEMPT TO PERSUADE A … SPECIFIC AUDIENCE BY USING EVIDENCE THAT SUPPORTS A CLAIM ABOUT AN ISSUE. Understanding argumentation develops CRITICAL THINKING by making us more aware of how people are trying to move or change us and, thus, more able to evaluate their arguments ARGUMENTATION… can serve a variety of purposes – – – – – To call readers to action To change people’s minds To lessen an objection To earn support for a view To reinforce an existing view and create sentiment to maintain the status­quo ARGUMENTS are addressed to specific audiences Mostly Supportive Wavering Mostly Hostile Between wavering and hostile or wavering and supportive A combination of supportive, wavering and hostile An ARGUMENT essay (or paper)… gives EVIDENCE to support a CLAIM about an ISSUE. It APPEALS to the reader’s reason, emotion, and respects a writer’s authority and ethics. EVIDENCE: facts, statistics, testimony, studies, research, and examples. A CLAIM is your informed opinion about the issue. An ISSUE is a concern or a problem about which people disagree. ELEMENTS OF ARGUMENT: 1. Thesis 2. Argument (appeal to LOGOS mostly; use of rhetorical strategies) 3. Counterargument 4. Concession 5. Support/evidence 6. Documentation of sources (in­text and final) 1. THESIS A one or two­sentence STATEMENT of the contents of a text. Usually a CLAIM: a statement of your informed opinion about an issue. AN EFFECTIVE THESIS: clearly and specifically states the controlling idea of the paper is a declarative statement that makes an assertion or claim about the paper’s topic limits the topic and opinion to one is not an announcement avoids expressions such as “In my opinion”, “I believe”, “I think” suggests the organization of the whole paper can be located at the beginning, in the middle or the end. 2. ARGUING means … making a claim AND presenting and developing issues or ideas while defending your position on it DEVELOPING & ORGANIZING SUPPORT FOR YOUR ARGUMENT 1­ Summarize, paraphrase, quote, analyze, critique, and synthesize information. 2­ Make a clear and effective claim. 3­ Provide various types of evidence (facts, statistics, testimony, examples) and appeals (logos, ethos, pathos). 4­ Use climatic order (progressive, chronological, or spatial) DEVELOPING & ORGANIZING SUPPORT FOR YOUR ARGUMENT 5­ Use logical reasoning: Inductive or deductive. Avoid logical fallacies. 6­ Respond to counter­arguments and concede. 7­ Use rhetorical strategies of presentation and patterns of development. 8­ Document in­text and at the end ARGUING: Use RHETORICAL STRATEGIES Choose strategies of presentation – – – – – – – compare and contrast process analysis division and classification theory and practice inductive/deductive reasoning concession­argument argument­counterargument (or raising and countering objections) – pros and cons – cause and effect – two or more reasons ARGUING Use patterns of development 1­description 2­definition 3­analysis 4­exemplification 5­narration 6­argumentation 7­explanation 3. COUNTER­ARGUING means … anticipating and refuting claims or positions that oppose those being favored by the writer. WRITERS MUST ANTICIPATE & ACCOUNT FOR POSITIONS OUTSIDE OF OR OPPOSED TO THEIR OWN CLAIMS COUNTER­ARGUING … Who might disagree with my position? Why? What reasons do people have for disagreeing with me? What would support an opposing argument? 4. CONCESSION While counterarguments refute objections, concessions: acknowledge the value of others’ claims may acknowledge the limitations of the writer’s own argument imply that the writer’s point is so strong that it can even admit the soundness of other positions PURPOSE: To acknowledge any legitimate concerns the reader has. CONCESSION Are there other valid positions that one could take on my topic? Are there legitimate reasons for taking another position on this topic? Does my argument make any large but necessary leaps? If the answer is “yes” to any of these questions (and it probably is), then you might address those directly in your paper. (Sequence 176 →exercise) ELEMENTS OF ARGUMENT: 5. Support/evidence: See appeal to LOGOS below 6. Documentation of sources: Follow disciplinary guidelines for in­text and final citations ARGUMENTATION APPEALS : 1) PATHOS (emotions) 2) ETHOS (ethics) 3) LOGOS (reason) 1) PATHOS: EMOTIONAL APPEALS Focus on readers’ beliefs, values and needs. Aim “directly for readers’ hearts”. May be explicit or implicit. Effective if combined with appeal to logic. EMOTIONAL APPEALS Many times they are a type of red herring (an irrelevant and encompass several logical fallacies, including: topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue) Appeal to consequences Appeal to fear Appeal to flattery Appeal to pity Appeal to ridicule Appeal to spite Wishful thinking Example of emotional appeal Support our troops is a slogan commonly used in the United States and Canada in reference to each country's military forces or troops. The slogan has been used during recent conflicts, including the Gulf War and the Iraq war. The slogan is sometimes seen as over­generalizing complex issues; for example, an individual may support personnel in the military but not the current respective government's foreign policy. Example of emotional appeal To Appeal to Emotion use … Vivid, concrete language Connotative meanings Emotional examples Vivid descriptions Emotional tone Emotionally loaded language Narratives of emotional events Figurative language 2) ETHOS: ETHICAL APPEALS Focus on establishing the writer’s authority and reliability. Often NOT explicit but pervading the argument. Determined by – – – moral character, intelligence &/or work, and good will. ETHOS: ETHICAL APPEALS Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. We tend to believe people whom we respect. ►Project an impression to the reader that you and your sources are are worth listening to. →→ QUALIFY YOUR SOURCES in text To Develop Ethos use … Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy Language appropriate to audience and subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Appropriate level of vocabulary Correct grammar ►►► Example of appeal to ethos ►► (Nebraska Supreme Court) 3) LOGOS: LOGICAL APPEALS Appeal to reason and logic Evidence: research, facts, statistics Testimony of authorities Authoritative arguments Logical explanations Personal experience and observation Literal and historical analogies Allusions to history, science, art, news events, etc. Avoiding logical fallacies (flawed logic) LOGICAL FALLACIES – non sequitur - slippery slippery slope slope – ad hominem argument - post-hoc post-hoc fallacy fallacy – false analogy - red herring – hasty generalization oversimplification oversimplification – begging the question - either or either reasoning - emotionally loaded terms - faulty Example of LOGOS (Picasso’s Guernica) Group discussion David Bruck’s “The Death Penalty” (Essays 326­ 33) 1) 2) 3) Identify AUDIENCE & PURPOSE. State the THESIS. Find an example of an EMOTIONAL APPEAL and explain it. 4) Find an example of an RATIONAL APPEAL and explain it. 5) Find an example of an ETHICAL APPEAL and explain it. FRIDAY: TEST 2) (RE)SUBMISSION OF OUTLINE AND (RE)SUBMISSION TOWARDS AN OUTLINE TOWARDS 1) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course ENG 101 taught by Professor Kimmet during the Spring '07 term at George Mason.

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