Critique - Monday March 1st Monday Cr itique Submit: R es....

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Unformatted text preview: Monday March 1st Monday Cr itique Submit: R es. Ex. # 2 Pick up assignments Next: Sequence Quiz on pages 82-83 Pr epar ation notes N ote that … • • • This unit concludes with the submission of a This major assignment (see syllabus, page 7 ) major For the assignment you are required to For incorporate ideas from the articles in this incorporate section (Sequence 319-) even though you are section critiquing “Into the Unknown” critiquing You will need to do an ONLINE PEER You REVIEW on Thursday before submitting the REVIEW drafts on Friday drafts CRI T I QU E C RI * A SU M M ARY AND AN EVAL U AT I ON OF A A SOURCE. *A FORMALIZED, CRI T I CAL RESPON SE TO SOURCE MATERIALS. * A SYST EM AT I C EVAL U AT I ON TO DEEPEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF A PASSAGE. Main purpose: To determine the validity of the source Cr itical Reading for Cr itique Cr Use critical skills for summary. Use critical Establish the writer’s primary purpose in Establish primary writing writing Evaluate informative and argumentative Evaluate informative writing differently (Sequence 82-83) writing Decide whether you agree or disagree with Decide agree the author’s ideas, position, or message. the Question # 1 Q uestion To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose? Question # 2 Q uestion To What Extent Do you Agree with the Author? A C RI T I QU E has five sections f ive 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Introduction Summary Analysis Response Conclusion 1- I N T ROD U CT I ON 1 Introduce passage and author Provide background material State author’s main argument State the points you intend to make State (i.e. YOUR thesis) (i.e. 2- SU M M ARY 2 State author’s purpose Summarize main points A N AL YSI S OF PRESEN T AT I ON of i nfor ma ti ve P RESEN A - Does the piece answer the following questions? Does answer a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 3- wr i ti ng wr What (or who) is …? How does … work? What is the controversy or problem about? What happened? How and why did it happen? What were the results? What are the arguments for and against …? 3- ANALYSIS OF PRESENTATION ANALYSIS of informative writing (cont.) informative (cont.) B . Is the information accurate? Is C . Is the information significant? D . Has the information been fairly interpreted? interpreted? 3- A N AL YSI S OF PRESEN T AT I ON of P RESEN a r gumenta ti ve wr i ti ng A . CLEARLY DEFINED TERMS CLEARLY B . FAIR USE OF INFORMATION FAIR C . LOGICAL ARGUMENTATION LOGICAL 3- AN AL YSI S OF PRESEN T AT I ON AN of a r gumenta ti ve wr i ti ng (cont.) ( cont.) C . AVOID LOGICAL FALLACIES: AVOID emotionally loaded terms ad hominem argument faulty cause and effect either/or reasoning hasty generalization false analogy begging the question non sequitur oversimplification 4 – P ERSON AL RESPON SE : R ESPON A . Identify POINTS OF AGREEMENT OR DISAGREEMENT B . Explain REASONS FOR AGREEMENT or DISAGREEMENTS (EVALUATION OF ASSUMPTIONS) An ASSU M PT I ON is … An …a fundamental statement about the world and its operations that you take to be true. … a proposition that is taken for granted, as if it were true based upon presupposition without preponderance of the facts. ASSUMPTIONS (cont.) ASSUMPTIONS (cont.) If you find an author’s assumptions INVALID because they are not supported by factual evidence, or, if you DISAGREE with value­based assumptions underlying an author’s position, you may well disagree with the conclusions that follow from these assumptions. 5 – CON CL U SI ON C ON State: State: • conclusions about the a uthor ’s author success at achieving his or her aims, success • your r eactions to the author’s views, • w eak nesses and str engths of the text. L OGI C … i s the study of the pr inciples of valid infer ence a nd demonstr ation . i nfer d emonstr L OGI C T he field of logic r anges fr om cor e t opics such as the study of fallacies f allacies a nd par adoxes, t o specialized p ar to a nalysis of r easoning using pr obability a nd to ar guments pr i nvolving causality . causality L ogic is also commonly used today i n ar gumentation theor y . ar L OGI CAL FAL L ACI ES = er r or s in logic er - non sequitur slope slope - ad hominem argument fallacy fallacy - false analogy cause & effect - oversimplification oversimplification generalization - begging the question begging - slippery slippery - post-hoc post-hoc - faulty faulty - hasty hasty - either or either Non Sequitur Non L at in for “ it doesn’t follow ” F allacy t hat descr ibes a conclusion Fallacy t hat does not logically follow fr om the pr emise. t he E.g. Since minor it ies have made such st r ides Since i n t he past few decades, we no longer need affir mat ive act ion pr ogr ams. n eed Ad Hominem = "against the man" or Ad "against the person." an attack against the char acter of per son m aking t he claim, her cir cumst ances, or her act ions act t his attack is tak en to be evidence against a ttack t he claim or ar gument t he per son in quest ion i s making E.g.: E .g. B ill: "I believe t hat abor t ion is mor ally wr ong." D ave: "Of cour se you would say t hat , you'r e a pr iest ." Post Hoc = Faulty Cause and Effect "Post hoc, er go pr opt er hoc." = " A fter this, After ther efor e because of this." t her ." T he fallacy involves concluding that A causes or caused B because A occur s befor e B or and t her e is not sufficient evidence t o act ually war r ant such a claim. E.g. J oan is scr at ched by a cat while visit ing her E .g. f r iend. Two days lat er she comes down wit h a f ever . Joan concludes t hat t he cat 's scr at ch m ust be t he cause of her illness. Slippery Slope A f allacy in which a per son asser t s t hat fallacy some event must inevitably follow fr om a nother w ithout any ar gument for the inevitability of the event in question . I n i nevitability m ost cases, t her e ar e a ser ies of st eps or gr adat ions bet ween one event and t he one in quest ion and no r eason is given as t o why t he int er vening st eps or gr adat ions will simply be bypassed. simply E.g. " We have t o st op t he t uit ion incr ease! The "We n ext t hing you know, t hey'll be char ging $40,000 a semest er !" Begging the Question = circular thinking circular A f allacy in which t he p r emises include fallacy t he claim that the conclusion is tr ue or ( dir ectly or indir ectly) assume that the conclusion is tr ue. (I t assumes as pr oven conclusion (I fact t he ver y t hesis being ar gued.) f act E.g. B ill: "God must exist ." J ill: "H ow do you know?" B ill: "Because t he Bible says so." J ill: "Why should I believe t he Bible?" B ill: "Because t he Bible was wr it t en by God." False Analogy False F allacy t hat compar es people, events, Fallacy or issues that ar e not compar able. or U sually t heir differ ences ar e mor e Usually d iffer t han t heir similar it ies and t he conclusion fr om one do not apply t o t he ot her . ot E.g. I t is r easonable t o quar ant ine people w it h AI DS because quar ant ine has been effect ive in pr event ing t he spr ead of smallpox. smallpox. Hasty Generalization Hasty D r aw ing conclusions fr om too little evidence or fr om unr epr esentative evidence. evidence E.g. One should never obey aut hor it y One because St anley M ilgr am’s exper iment s showed t he danger s of obedience. showed (Unr epr esent at ive: concer ned pr imar ily wit h obedience t o i mmor al (Unr aut hor it y) aut Either/Or Reasoning Either/Or F allacy t hat r esult s fr om t he Fallacy u nw illingness to r ecognize complexity. complexity. W hen analyzing a pr oblem, t he wr it er When r estr icts t he r ange of possible solut ions t o tw o cour ses of action w hen tw of possibly t her e ar e sever al ot her opt ions possibly E.g. Sequence 67 Sequence 67 Oversimplification Oversimplification A f allacy t hat offer s easy solutions to fallacy complicated pr oblems. complicated E.g. A mer ica’s economy will be st r ong if we Amer all “buy Amer ican”. all In-class exercise: In-class “ The Unt ouchables” Critical reading (Sequence 82­83) t he end! ...
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