The Policymaking Process

The Policymaking Process - ThePolicymakingProcess Steps in...

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Steps in the Process Activities Participants 1 The Policymaking Process
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Step 1: Problem Identification 2 Activity Publicizing societal problems Expressing demands for government action Participants Mass media Interest groups Citizen initiatives Public Opinion
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Problem Identification 3 Conditions vs Problems Conditions become defined as problems when we come to believe that we should do something about them A mismatch between the observed conditions and one’s conception of an ideal state becomes a problem
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Step 2: Agenda Setting 4 Activity Deciding what issues will be decided Deciding what problems will be addressed by government Participants Mass media Elites Parties Candidates for elective office
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How do Problems Get on the  Agenda? 5 Determine who is affected and how much Presence of analogy or spillovers Link to national symbols or the national interest Indicators and focusing events Crises, particularity, emotive, power and legitimacy, fashionable
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Who is Affected? 6 Extremity : the more extreme the problem, the more likely it is to end up on the agenda Concentration : bulk or majority of people affected by the problem are in one area
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Who is Affected? 7 Range: the more people affected, the more likely it is to end up on the agenda Visibility: the more visible the problem to the public, more likely it is to end up on agenda
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 Analogy or Spillovers 8 Analogy-the more a new issue can be made to look like an old issue, the more likely it will be placed on the agenda Spillovers-new programs created to deal with problems created by unintended consequences of the first program
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National Symbols and the National  Interest 9 Symbols: freedom, justice, individualism, others? National interest: security, economy
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Indicators 10 Measures of particular phenomenon—can be used to assess the magnitude of a problem or the monitor changes in the problem
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Indicators 11 Routine monitoring: mortality/morbidity rates; victimization rates; homicides, rapes, burglary rates Expenditures and budgetary impact Special reports being conducted
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Indicators 12 The method by which facts are gathered and their interpretations are a source of debate
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Focusing Events 13 Problems are often not self-evident by the indicators - they need a push to get the attention of people in and around government.
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Focusing Event 14 Push is sometimes provided by a focusing event or crisis that comes along to call attention to the problem, a powerful symbol catches on, or the personal experience of a policy maker
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Focusing Event 15 May reinforce some preexisting perception of a problem; may serve as an early warning of something that might become a problem; may combine with other events to point to a problem
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Getting Attention 16 Crisis Particularity Emotive Power and legitimacy Fashionable
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The Policymaking Process - ThePolicymakingProcess Steps in...

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