Resources Management I HRM

Resources Management I HRM - Resources Management I Human...

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Unformatted text preview: Resources Management I Human Resources Management Applied to Civil Rights Outline The Development of Public Personnel Management The Environment of HRM Getting the Right People Maximizing Performance Maintaining an Effective Work Force Application: Civil Rights Development Government by Gentlemen: The Guardian Period (1789­1829) Government by the Common Man: The Spoils Period (1829­1883) Government by the Good: The Reform Period (1883­1906) Government by the Efficient: The Scientific Management Period (1906­1937) Government by Administration: The Management Period (1937­1955) Government by Shared Power: The ? Period (1955­present) Merit and Civil Service Reform Merit principle—generally means that selection and treatment of government employees should be based on merit or competence rather than on personal or political favoritism Spoils system—ability to give government jobs to the party faithful Pendleton Act of 1883 was primarily an effort to eliminate political influence from administrative agencies and secondarily an effort to assure more competent government employees Merit and Civil Service Reform Throughout its history, the civil service idea has rested on three basic principles: 1) That the selection of subordinated government officials should be based on merit—the ability to perform the work rather than any form of personal or political favoritism 2) That since jobs are to be filled by weighing the merits of applicants, those hired should have tenure regardless of political changes at the top of organizations 3) The price of job security should be a willing responsiveness to the legitimate political leaders of the day External Environment Civil Service Reform Major Federal Laws Legislation and Court Decisions Demographic Trends – – – – – – Race Ethnicity Gender Religion Education Disability Trends • Four ‘generational groups’ in the workforce • Important to work at melding these groups • Focus on issues such as job descriptions, scheduling options and benefits Trends • Traditionalists (to 1944) and Baby Boomers (1945­1964) Require more flexible/shorter hours Compensation and benefits will be different from younger workers Want more work/life balance Not as comfortable with technology Children primarily of industrial age Trends • Busters or Generation X (1965­1976) Attach to people, not organizations Interested in mentoring Need a sense of mission Grew up with technology Comfortable with authority, which allows them to speak up with fresh ideas Independent and don’t accept the status quo Want to have fun at work Children primarily of information/technology age Trends • Millennials or Generation Y (to 1977­1994) See system as friendly More socialized and compliant Achievers Goal oriented Take technology for granted Skills acquired in a more complex environment Internal Environment Organizational Culture Defined: the predominant value system of an organization – Benefits—eases and economizes communications, facilitates organizational decision making and control, may generate higher levels of cooperation and commitment; encouraged through selection, socialization, history, role models – Liabilities—can interfere with the needs of the organization, the people who work in it, or the public; the extent to which the culture leads people to act in inappropriate ways Models of Cultural Behavior National cultures—the collective mental programming of people in an environment – Power Distance – Uncertainty Avoidance – Individualism­Collectivism – Masculinity­Femininity – Long­term/Short­Term Orientation 12 An Example: East-West Differences 13 People Resources Planning – What new technologies are emerging and how will they affect the work system? – What is the volume of work likely to be in the next 5 to 10 years? – What is the turnover rate, and how much, if any, is avoidable? People Recruiting, Testing and Selection – Recruiting—every possible source of qualified candidates within the appropriate labor marked must be reached – Test validity—the relationship between one's score on a selection device and one's future job performance – Test reliability—employer can count on the test to measure the same factors in the same way each time it is given; both written and performance tests are used – Selection—names of the highest ranking candidates are presented to the appointing official for selection (certification); rule of three—permits the appointing official to choose among the top three individuals certified People Classification and Compensation – Position classification—involves identifying the duties and responsibilities of each position in an organization and then grouping the positions according to their similarities (rank­in­job­ approach) – Rank­in­person approach—uses the abilities and experience of individuals as the basis for making various personnel decisions – Compensation—in general, pay according to different levels of duties and responsibilities; time frame of the individual—how long it takes to complete a task Performance Training and Management Development: – Training provides employees with an opportunity to improve themselves, correct skill deficiencies, and prepare for jobs unique to the public sector – Management development—improve a person’s knowledge and skill in the fundamentals of management – Advancement—linked to performance appraisal Maintenance Discipline and Grievances: – Grievance—a circumstance or condition that in the opinion of those affected constitutes a wrong and gives one just grounds for complaining; – Discipline—goal is improvement of employee performance, oral and written most common forms; if these fail, suspension, demotion, reassignment and dismissal may be in order Unions and Collective Bargaining Why do people join unions? – Dissatisfaction with the work environment, including working conditions, compensation, and supervision – A desire to have more influence in affecting change in the work environment – Employee beliefs regarding the potential benefit of unions Occurs when representatives of a labor union meet with management representatives to determine employees' wages and benefits, to create or revise work rules, and the resolve disputes or violations of the labor contract – Major issues in collective bargaining wage­related issues supplementary economic benefits institutional issues administrative issues Collective Bargaining Union’s Economic Power in Collective Bargaining Union's base of power – Striking—a refusal on the part of employees to perform their jobs – Picketing—used by employees on strike to advertise their dispute with management and to discourage others from entering or leaving the premises – Boycotting—involves refusing to patronize an employer by refusing to buy or use the employer's products or services Employer’s Power in Collective Employer’s Bargaining Bargaining Employer's base of power – Ability to determine how to use capital within the organization as long as these decisions are made in accordance with the law – Ability to more easily replace striking employees with replacements – May effectively operate with a substantially reduced staff during a strike due to technology advances thus decreasing the effectiveness of the strike – Exercise lockout—shutting down of operations, usually in anticipation of a strike CIVIL RIGHTS POLICY AND THE OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS 23 14th Amendment: 1868 – Provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which had excluded slaves and their descendants from possessing Constitutional rights. Plessy v. Ferguson: 1896 – Upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations under the doctrine of "separate but equal". 24 – Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional. The Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." 25 Brown v Board of Education: 1954 – Public Discrimination Ruled Unlawful – Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Equal Housing The Civil Rights Act of 1968 26 – LBJ: Executive order 11246 in 1965 Affirmative Action 27 First Women’s College 1821 Oberlin College – 1833: Accepts Women – 1841: Allows Women to Graduate 28 – First Woman Elected to House of Representatives National Women’s Party: 1916 – Women’s Suffrage 19th Amendment: 1920 29 – The Commission on Status of Women 1963: 58.9% of Men 1995: 71.4% of Men “Glass Ceiling” Equal Rights Act Proposed: 1923 Equal Pay Act: 1963 30 – Created in an effort to pass ERA and to Enforce Title VII of CRA National Organization of Women: 1966 1972: Nixon Supports ERA, Congress Passes ERA, but States Refuse To Ratify ERA Equal Credit Opportunity Act: 1974 31 – Title IX: Equal Representation in Men's and Women's Athletics 1971: 1 in 27 2000: 1 in 2.5 Education Amendments Act: 1972 32 June 19, 1963, President Kennedy submits to Congress stating discrimination by federally funded facilities is wrong and should be unlawful; public money should benefit all July 2, 1964, CRA signed by President Johnson Final rule/implementing regulation published 12/4/64, approved 1/5/65 33 Federal agency Part of U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Enforces regulations prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, disability, and age, by recipients of Federal financial assistance from HHS 34 No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies. 45 CFR 80.3 35 Prohibits federally assisted programs from discriminating against individuals because of race, color, national origin Prohibits segregated facilities (such as hospitals and schools) Considered by many to be the grandfather of all modern civil rights laws 36 1. Disparate Treatment: Intentional discrimination because of race, color or national origin 2. Disparate Impact: Facially neutral policy or procedure that has the effect of discriminating against individuals of a particular race, color or national origin 37 Recipients of federal financial assistance shall not: – deny an individual a service, aid or other benefit – provide a benefit, aid, etc. which is different or provided in a different manner – subject an individual to segregation or separate treatment 45 CFR § 80.3 38 Recipients shall not: • restrict an individual in the enjoyment of benefits, privileges, etc. • treat an individual differently in determining eligibility • deny a person opportunity to participate on planning board 45 CFR § 80.3 39 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabling condition in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance 40 Handicap or Disability A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities Major life activities include (but are not limited to) things such as walking, talking, hearing, seeing, eating, speaking, working, caring for oneself 41 Three ways to be impaired: A person with a substantially limiting impairment A person who has a history of having a substantially limiting impairment A person who is viewed by the recipient as having a substantially limiting impairment 42 Section 504 requires Integration of persons with disabilities Equal and effective services Accommodations or program modifications where reasonable Program access for the disabled 43 Section 504 requires that recipients Shall not provide a different or separate aid, benefit or service Shall not limit the enjoyment of any right, privilege, or opportunity 45 CFR §§ 84.4 & 84.52 44 Recipients must give disabled persons the highest quality of services available as well as a full range of services provided to non­disabled patients Not a guarantee that the disabled will achieve same result but, • Disabled persons must be afforded an opportunity to obtain same result • 45 CFR §§ 84.4 & 84.52 45 Passed in 1990 Comprehensive law which attempts to apply Section 504 prohibitions to the private sector as well as state and local governments Contains 5 titles and is enforced by a variety of federal agencies 46 Title I Title II Employment Enforcement agency ­ EEOC Activities of state and local governments Enforced by various federal agencies HHS jurisdiction over health and social service programs of state and local governments 47 Title III Title IV Title V Areas of public accommodation Lead enforcement agency ­ US DOJ Telecommunications Enforcement agency ­ FCC Miscellaneous provisions 48 Found at 28 CFR Part 35 Effective date January 26, 1992 Prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in services provided by state and local governments OCR jurisdiction over health & social service programs of state & local governments 49 Definitions under Title II track those under Section 504 Unlike Section 504, Title II provides definitions of what is NOT a disability Examples: current illegal drug use, compulsive gambling 50 Prohibits discrimination on the basis of age Protects persons of all ages General provisions comparable to Title VI Does not cover employment 51 How Laws Are Enforced Complaints: persons who believe they have been subjected to discrimination may file a complaint with OCR Compliance reviews: OCR may initiate a review of any agency or program that receives DHHS funds Technical assistance/training For more information…… www.hhs.gov/ocr 52 ...
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