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Unformatted text preview: Education: The Interest Group Struggle Group General Background General People need to be educated in order to fully participate in society – vote, find employment, etc. Many citizens expect the education system to solve various societal problems, such as unemployment poverty rates and race relations Difficulties Facing Teachers Difficulties Responsible for teaching things besides Reading writing and arithmetic School have become a medium thought which the nations problems are combated Create respect for diversity Improve physical health Teach jobs skills Ensure that all students are properly fed Fight drug and alcohol abuse Staffing Issues Staffing Little funding to produce educators with credentials Predicted that 2 million teachers will be needed in the next decade 20% of new teachers will quit with in 3 yrs In urban areas 50% of teachers will quit within 5 years Class Size Class NEA advocates 15:1 students/teachers Most schools don’t meet this ratio—what should be done? Conflicts with Educators and Policies Policies Many educators feel that school boards do not spend enough time trying to solve the problems of failing schools Financing Education Financing Historically property Tax rate was set by the local school board, other local officials or directly by citizens. This changed though and the courts forced them to find a new way to find funding because more expensive property would result in better schools for that neighborhood. Today it has changed dramatically and most of the money comes from state funding although some of it still comes from property tax. The federal government only pays 10% of funding for public education nation wide How the money is used How The federal government, state governments, school districts, and schools all have some decision making role. Policy makers and educators must balance the need for equity and standardization against the need to tailor services and instruction to unique local circumstances. Most of the money in every school system is the salaries and benefits. Instructional materials, utility costs, and building maintenance are other types of expenditures. Key components of plan are: No Child Left Behind Act a. States will test all students in the 3rd through 8th grade in reading and math and their progress will be reported to the public, states and federal government b. States will break down the achievement by race, ethnic group and socioeconomic status so schools cannot hide minority students’ scores behind other kids c. States will be required to set “challenging content standards in history and science” d. Federal money to help subsidize tuition for private or religious schools for parents of children whose public school is failing e. Let students transfer out of dangerous schools and give teachers authority to kick dangerous kids out of classroom. No Child Left Behind Act No Mandates educational standards for schools and if schools fail to meet these standards they will face consequences Increased testing Every child, including special education students, must read at their prescribed reading level NCLB Terminology NCLB Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and schools must achieve each year toward the goal of having all students reaching the proficient level on state tests by 2014 NCLB Terminology NCLB Teacher quality: The No Child Left Behind act The requires that, in order for states to receive federal funding, all teachers must be "highly qualified”. qualified”. A highly qualified teacher is one who has (1) fulfilled the state's certification and licensing (1) requirements requirements (2) obtained at least a bachelor's degree, and (2) (3) demonstrated subject matter expertise. (3) Theory Theory NCLB enacts the theories of standards-based NCLB education reform, formerly known as outcome-based education, which is based on the belief that high expectations and setting of goals will result in success for all students. The Act requires states to develop assessments in The basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. NCLB does not assert a national achievement NCLB standard: standards are set by each individual state. standard: Four Pillars of NCLB Four 1) Stronger Accountability for Results 1) 2) More Freedom for States and Communities 3) Proven Education Methods 4) More Choices for Parents Ideological Perspectives on NCLB: Conservative NCLB is overly costly and grants the federal government too large and intrusive a role in education policy K12 education should remain a state based issue The key to fixing public education is providing more school choice, not pouring more money in the current system NCLB should provide much more federal funding for education Failing schools should be given additional money rather than being punished Teacher and principal salaries should me raised More community outreach and after school programs should be implemented across the country Ideological Perspectives on NCLB: Liberal NCLB: Education Groups Professional Educators Teachers, Principals, and Superintendents Teachers Unions – National Educators Association (NEA) American Federation of Teachers (AFT) lobby for increased salaries, benefits, and other improvements Taxpayers and Voters Local school districts hold elections regarding issues such as school bonds and taxes School Boards – Consists of concerned parents and local citizens Racial Interest Groups Concerns regarding racial separation in schools Religious Interest Groups – Concerns about prayer in schools, curriculum that teaches evolution as opposed to creationism, as well as other issues CA Department of Education Guiding beliefs, principles, and performance benchmarks of the California Department of Education. CA Department of Education We believe that the public school system must meet the comprehensive learning needs of each student to reach high expectations. Equity of access to quality public education is the right of every student and the responsibility of the State of California. The Core Purpose of the California Department of Education is to lead and support the continuous improvement of student achievement, with a specific focus on closing achievement gaps. California Department of Education ...providing leadership for strong schools and equitable outcomes for ALL students! CA Enrollment by Ethnic Group Ethnic Group American Indian or Alaskan Asian Pacific Islander Filipino Hispanic African American White Multiple or No Response Total Enrollment 50,758 517,163 40,363 165,571 3,003,521 494,957 1,915,448 124,321 6,312,102 Percent 0.8% 0.6% 47.6% 30.3% 8.2% 2.6% 7.8% 2.0% 100.0% CA Graduates by Ethnic Group Ethnic Group American Indian or Alaskan Asian Pacific Islander Filipino Hispanic African American White Multiple or No Response Total Graduates 2,950 36,391 2,348 11,485 129,671 26,800 140,807 4,765 355,217 Percent 0.8% 10.2% 0.7% 3.2% 7.5% 1.3% 36.5% 39.6% 100.0% ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course PPD 225 taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07