Lecture 4 Quiz 2

Lecture 4 Quiz 2 - Astronomy 100 - Dr. Wilson Lecture # 4 -...

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Astronomy 100 - Dr. Wilson Lecture # 4 - 9/2/2010 Quiz #1 takes place at 1:00 pm on 9/7/2010 Closed-book exam
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The Tides The differential gravitational pull of the Moon on the various parts of the Earth results in two high tides located on opposite sides of the Earth. On the side of the Earth that is nearest to the Moon, the water and the rock feel a greater force and they both flow to the area underneath the Moon, causing a high tide in the both the ocean and in the Earth there. The differential gravitational pull of the Moon also results in
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Example of high tide / low tide
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The different vectors are proportional in length to the force of the Moon’s gravity on the different parts of the Earth. The directions of the vectors all point toward the center of the Moon.
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The force of the Moon on the nearside of the Earth is larger than the force on the center of the Earth, which is larger than the force on the farside of the Earth.
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The Tides High tide on the opposite side of the Earth occurs because center of the Earth feels a greater force toward the Moon than either the water or the rock on the far side - main body of the Earth is pulled away from the water and rock on far side, resulting in another high tide. This high tide is located exactly opposite the first one.
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The Tides This tide occurs not as the Earth rotates on its axis, the Moon also revolves around the Earth. Because the Moon is not stationary, the Earth must turn for about its axis for an additional 50 minutes each day before a spot on the Earth’s surface returns to the same position with respect to the Moon. This is what causes the high tides and the rising and setting of the Moon to occur about 50 minutes later each day.
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The Tides The Sun’s gravitational attraction also causes tides on the Earth, though the effect of the Sun is smaller than that of the Moon. A spring tide is the greatest difference between high and low tide during a given day. Such tides occur about twice a month when the lunar and solar tides correspond. Spring tides occur when the Sun, Moon, and Earth are all located in a line (i.e. at syzygy ) Spring tides only occur at new or full Moon.
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The Tides A neap tide is the smallest difference between high and low tide in a single day. Such tides occur when the solar tide most nearly cancels the lunar tide (i.e., when the solar tides are located 90° away from the lunar tides). Neap tides occur when the Moon is located either 90 o ahead of or 90 o behind the Sun. Therefore, neap tides only occur when the Moon is at 1st or 3rd quarter phase .
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The Tides The Earth’s rotational motion tends to drag the tides along with it, so that a high tide is not located directly underneath the Moon, but is instead located slightly farther to the east of the line from the Earth to the Moon. Tidal friction
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Lecture 4 Quiz 2 - Astronomy 100 - Dr. Wilson Lecture # 4 -...

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