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Unformatted text preview: The Women’s Movement, The Women’s Movement, 1848Present: The History of Rights The History of Rights Rights and Civil Liberties What are they, who has them, and why? the revolutionary tradition—English, American, French freedom and equality The Women’s Movement: The The Women’s Movement: The `First Wave,’ 18481950 Objectives and accomplishments Rights, but what kind? Legal (protection by law) and political (the vote) Seneca Falls, NY, 1848 Seneca Falls, NY, 1848 Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of Sentiments Declaration of Sentiments When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one portion of the family of man to assume among the people of the earth a position different from that which they have hitherto occupied, but one to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel them to such an absolution. We hold these truths to be selfevident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted…It is the right of those who suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it, and to insist upon the institution of a new government…Such has been the patient sufferance of the women under this government, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to demand the equal station to which they are entitled. The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world. The Right to Vote The Right to Vote
Emmeline Pankhurst and the British `Suffragettes’ British Women’s Social and Political Union 1903 The Importance of the Vote, 1908 Resistance and Hunger Strikes Representation of the People Act, 1918 voting rights to women over 30, property qualification full voting rights equal to males 1928 US 19th Amendment, ratified 1920 “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.” French Voting Rights (1944) full citizenship; welfare state and rights of the family —cradle to grave social security The `Second Wave’ The `Second Wave’ 1950s1980s Expansion of legal rights to economic and reproductive rights United Nations Declaration of Universal Rights, 1948 PREAMBLE PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people…Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom… The Fruits of Prosperity The Fruits of Prosperity Rising Expectations of the Middle Class Higher Education Freedom and Equality Occupational Proliferation management, professions, government “Cultural” rights and the Oppression of Roles Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex, 1949 Trapped by gender roles “woman has always been, if not the slave of man, then at least his vassal.” “There is no other issue for woman than her liberation.” Existentialist—culture over nature Betty Friedan: Betty Friedan: The Feminine Mystique, 1963 housewife and mother a stifling gender role; fulfillment beyond this role U.S. Equal Pay Act, 1963: “No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except where such payment is made pursuant to (i) a seniority system; (ii) a merit system; (iii) a system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or (iv) a differential based on any other factor other than sex…Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Equal Pay Act of 1963." National Organization for National Organization for Women (NOW), 1966 Statement of Purpose (the original was scribbled on a napkin by Friedan) “To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all the privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men." Women’s March for Women’s March for Women’s Rights Reproductive rights Reproductive rights Contraception, birth control, abortion, maternity leave, sexual harassment United States: Griswold vs. Connecticut, 1965; Supreme Court decision (72) securing legal right to contraception basis: right to privacy a fundamental right of all U.S. citizens Roe vs. Wade Supreme Court Decision (72), 1973 right to privacy The central holding of Roe v. Wade: abortions are permissible for any reason a woman chooses, up until the "point at which the fetus becomes ‘viable,’ that is, potentially able to live outside the mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid. Viability is usually placed at about seven months (28 weeks) but may occur earlier, even at 24 weeks.” Reproductive Rights (con’t) Reproductive Rights (con’t) France: legal use of birth control (Loi Neuwirth 1969) legalized abortion (Loi Simone Veil 1975) Ministry for Women’s Rights (1981) law against sexual discrimination (1983) law securing state financial support for abortion (1982) rape between spouses a crime (1990) sexual harassment punishable at law (1992) The `Third Wave’: 1990s The `Third Wave’: 1990s present Identity vs. essentialism —femininity not universal or biological cultural/social/economic roles determine identity (sexual orientation, color, class) Feminism in Popular Feminism in Popular Culture Music as the voice of the generations Record industry and consumer capitalism Middle Class From patriarchy to liberation “My Boyfriend’s Back” The Angels, 1963 “My boyfriend's back and you're gonna be in trouble You see him comin' better cut out on the double You been spreading lies that I was untrue So look out now cause he's comin' after you He's been gone for such a long time Now he's back and things'll be fine You're gonna be sorry you were ever born Cause he's kinda big and he's awful strong Hey he knows I wasn't cheatin'! Now you're gonna get a beatin'! What made you think he'd believe all your lies? You're a big man now but he'll cut you down to size My boyfriend's back he's gonna save my reputation If I were you I'd take a permanent vacation “Hit me with your best shot,” Pat Benatar, 1980 Well you’re the real tough cookie with the long history Of breaking little hearts, like the one in me That’s o.k., lets see how you do it Put up your dukes, let’s get down to it! Hit me with your best shot! Why don’t you hit me with your best shot! Hit me with your best shot! Fire away! You come on with a come on, you don’t fight fair But that’s o.k., see if I care! Knock me down, its all in vain Ill get right back on my feet again! Well you’re the real tough cookie with the long history Of breaking little hearts, like the one in me Before I put another notch in my lipstick case You better make sure you put me in my place Early 1990s: Riot Grrls Early 1990s: Riot Grrls Radical Feminism, identity concerns Bikini Kill, Bratmobile “Alien She,” Bikini Kill, 1994 She is me I am her She is me I am her Siamese twins connected at the ct Heartbrainheartbrainheartbrainlunggut I want to kill her But i'm afraid it might kill me "feminist" "dyke" "whore" I'm so pretty Alien She wants me to go to the mall She wants me To put the pretty, pretty lipstick on She wants me to be like her Pretty, pretty Alien And all i really wanted to know Who was me and who is she I guess i'll never know The 21st Century? The 21 Pink? identity and rights she does not "like labels" when it comes to defining sexuality, but “we are all trisexuals” “Stupid Girls” (parody of Lindsay Lohan, Paris Hilton, Jessica Simpson) Charities and Social Engagement: Human Rights Campaign, Greenpeace, Take Back the Night, Planned Parenthood ...
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