cm12 - Chapter 8 Covalent bonding Covalent Bonding A metal...

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Chapter 8 Covalent bonding
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Covalent Bonding A metal and a nonmetal transfer electrons An ionic bond Two metals just mix and don’t react An alloy What do two nonmetals do? Neither one will give away an electron So they share their valence electrons This is a covalent bond
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Covalent bonding Makes molecules Specific atoms joined by sharing electrons Two kinds of molecules: Molecular compound Sharing by different elements Diatomic molecules Two of the same atom O 2 N 2
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Diatomic elements There are 8 elements that always form molecules H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 , and At 2 Oxygen by itself means O 2 The –ogens and the –ines 1 + 7 pattern on the periodic table
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1 and 7
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Molecular compounds Tend to have low melting and boiling points Have a molecular formula which shows type and number of atoms in a molecule Not necessarily the lowest ratio C 6 H 12 O 6 Formula doesn’t tell you about how atoms are arranged
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How does H 2 form? The nuclei repel + +
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How does H 2 form? + + The nuclei repel But they are attracted to electrons They share the electrons
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Covalent bonds Nonmetals hold onto their valence electrons. They can’t give away electrons to bond. Still need noble gas configuration. Get it by sharing valence electrons with each other. By sharing both atoms get to count the electrons toward noble gas configuration.
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Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F
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Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons
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Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons
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Single Covalent Bond A sharing of two valence electrons. Only nonmetals and Hydrogen. Different from an ionic bond because they actually form molecules. Two specific atoms are joined. In an ionic solid you can’t tell which atom the electrons moved from or to.
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How to show how they formed It’s like a jigsaw puzzle. I have to tell you what the final formula is. You put the pieces together to end up with the right formula. For example- show how water is formed with covalent bonds.
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Water H O Each hydrogen has 1 valence electron and wants 1 more The oxygen has 6 valence electrons and wants 2 more They share to make each other “happy”
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Water Put the pieces together The first hydrogen is happy The oxygen still wants one more H O
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Water The second hydrogen attaches Every atom has full energy levels H O H
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Multiple Bonds Sometimes atoms share more than one pair of valence electrons.
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2011.

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cm12 - Chapter 8 Covalent bonding Covalent Bonding A metal...

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