cm14 - Chapter 6 The Periodic Table The how and why History...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 The Periodic Table The how and why History 1829 German J. W. Dobereiner Grouped elements into triads • Three elements with similar properties • Properties followed a pattern • The same element was in the middle of all trends x Not all elements had triads x History Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev taught chemistry in terms of properties x Mid 1800 – atomic masses of elements were known x Wrote down the elements in order of increasing mass x Found a pattern of repeating properties x Grouped elements in columns by similar properties in order of increasing atomic mass x Found some inconsistencies - felt that the properties were more important than the mass, so switched order. x Found some gaps x Must be undiscovered elements x Predicted their properties before they were found x Mendeleev’s Table Elements are still grouped by properties x Similar properties are in the same column x Order is in increasing atomic number x Added a column of elements Mendeleev didn’t know about. x The noble gases weren’t found because they didn’t react with anything. x The Modern Table Horizontal rows are called periods x There are 7 periods x Vertical columns are called groups. x Elements are placed in columns by similar properties. x Also called families x x 1A 2A The elements in the A groups 8A 0 are called the representative 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A elements IIA IA 12 1A 2A VIIA VIA VIIIA IVA IIIA VA IIB IB VIIB IVB VIB 13 14 15 16 17 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 18 8A IIIB 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B VB VIIIB Other Systems Metals Metals Luster – shiny. q Ductile – drawn into wires. q Malleable – hammered into sheets. q Conductors of heat and electricity. q Transition metals q The Group B elements Dull q Brittle q Nonconductors - insulators q Non-metals Metalloids or Semimetals Properties of both q Semiconductors q x These are called the inner transition elements and they belong here Group 1A are the alkali metals x Group 2A are the alkaline earth metals x Group 7A is called the Halogens x Group 8A are the noble gases x Why? The part of the atom another atom sees is the electron cloud. x More importantly the outside orbitals x The orbitals fill up in a regular pattern x The outside orbital electron configuration repeats x So.. the properties of atoms repeat. x H Li 1 3 1s1 1s22s1 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s1 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s2 5p66s1 Na 11 K 19 Rb 37 Cs 55 Fr 87 1s2 1s22s22p6 He 2 Ne 10 Ar 18 36 54 1s22s22p63s23p6 Kr 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6 Xe 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 5s25p6 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 Rn 86 s1 S- block s2 Alkali metals all end in s1 x Alkaline earth metals all end in s2 x really have to include He but it fits better later x He has the properties of the noble gases x Transition Metals -d block s1 d5 s1 10 d10 d d1 d2 d3 d5 d6 d7 d8 The P-block p1 p2 p 3 p 4 p 5 p6 F - block x inner transition elements f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12 f13 f14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x Each row (or period) is the energy level for s and p orbitals x d orbitals fill up after previous energy level so first d is 3d even though it’s in row 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4f f orbitals start filling at 4f x 5f Writing Electron configurations the easy way Yes there is a shorthand Electron Configurations repeat The shape of the periodic table is a representation of this repetition. x When we get to the end of the row the outermost energy level is full. x This is the basis for our shorthand x The Shorthand Write the symbol of the noble gas before the element in brackets [ ] x Then the rest of the electrons. x Aluminum - full configuration x x x x 1s22s22p63s23p1 Ne is 1s22s22p6 so Al is [Ne] 3s23p1 More examples x x x x Ge = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p2 Ge = [Ar] 4s23d104p2 Ge = [Ar] 3d104s24p2 Hf=1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p64f14 4d105s25p65d26s2 Hf=[Xe]6s24f145d2 Hf=[Xe]4f145d26s2 x x The Shorthand Sn- 50 electrons The noble gas before it is Kr Takes care of 36 Next 5s2 Then 4d10 Finally 5p2 [ Kr ] 5s2 4d10 5p2 Practice Write the shorthand configuration for xS x x Mn Mo W x x Electron configurations and groups Representative elements have s and p orbitals as last filled • Group number = number of electrons in highest energy level x Transition metals- d orbitals x Inner transition- f orbitals x Noble gases s and p orbitals full x Part 3 Periodic trends Identifying the patterns Atomic size • how big the atoms are x Ionization energy • How much energy to remove an electron x Electronegativity • The attraction for the electron in a compound x Ionic size • How big ions are x What we will investigate What we will look for Periodic trends• How those 4 things vary as you go across a period x Group trends • How those 4 things vary as you go down a group x Why? • Explain why they vary x The why first The positive nucleus pulls on electrons x Periodic trends – as you go across a period • The charge on the nucleus gets bigger • The outermost electrons are in the same energy level • So the outermost electrons are pulled stronger x The why first The positive nucleus pulls on electrons x Group Trends • As you go down a group – You add energy levels – Outermost electrons not as attracted by the nucleus x x The electron on the outside energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus Shielding + The electron on the outside energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus x A second electron has the same shielding x In the same energy level (period) shielding is the same x Shielding + As the energy levels changes the shielding changes x Lower down the group • More energy levels • More shielding • Outer electron less attracted x Shielding + Threeshields Two shields One shield No shielding Atomic Size First problem where do you start measuring x The electron cloud doesn’t have a definite edge. x They get around this by measuring more than 1 atom at a time x Atomic Size Radius xAtomic Radius = half the distance between two nuclei of molecule } Trends in Atomic Size x Influenced by two factors x Energy Level x Higher energy level is further away x Charge on nucleus x More charge pulls electrons in closer Group trends As we go down a group x Each atom has another energy level x More shielding x So the atoms get bigger x H Li Na K Rb Periodic Trends As you go across a period the radius gets smaller. x Same shielding and energy level x More nuclear charge x Pulls outermost electrons closer x Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Rb K Overall Atomic Radius (nm) Na Li Ar H Ne Kr 10 Atomic Number Ionization Energy The amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom. x Removing one electron makes a +1 ion x The energy required is called the first ionization energy x Ionization Energy The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove the second electron x Always greater than first IE x The third IE is the energy required to remove a third electron x Greater than 1st or 2nd IE x Symbol First H He Li Be B C N O F Ne 1312 2731 520 900 800 1086 1402 1314 1681 2080 Second 5247 7297 1757 2430 2352 2857 3391 3375 3963 Third 11810 14840 3569 4619 4577 5301 6045 6276 What determines IE The greater the nuclear charge the greater IE. x Increased shielding decreases IE x Filled and half filled orbitals have lower energy, so achieving them is easier, lower IE x Group trends x As you go down a group first IE decreases because of x More shielding x So outer electron less attracted Periodic trends All the atoms in the same period • Same shielding. • Increasing nuclear charge x So IE generally increases from left to right. x Exceptions at full and 1/2 full orbitals x He First Ionization energy H He has a greater IE than H x same shielding x greater nuclear charge x Atomic number He First Ionization energy H Li has lower IE than H q more shielding q outweighs greater nuclear charge q Li Atomic number He First Ionization energy H Be Be has higher IE than Li q same shielding q greater nuclear charge q Li Atomic number He First Ionization energy H Be B B has lower IE than Be q same shielding q greater nuclear charge q By removing an electron we make s orbital full q Li Atomic number First Ionization energy H He Li Be C B Atomic number He First Ionization energy N H Be B C Li Atomic number He First Ionization energy x N H Be B CO Breaks the pattern because removing an electron gets to 1/2 filled p orbital Li Atomic number He First Ionization energy NF H Be B CO Li Atomic number He Ne NF First Ionization energy H Be B CO Ne has a lower IE than He x Both are full, x Ne has more shielding x Li Atomic number He Ne NF q Na First Ionization energy has a lower IE than Li H Be B CO are s1 q Na has more shielding q Both Li Na Atomic number First Ionization energy Web elements Atomic number Driving Force Full Energy Levels are very low energy x Noble Gases have full orbitals x Atoms behave in ways to achieve noble gas configuration x 2nd Ionization Energy x For elements that reach a filled or half-full orbital by removing 2 electrons 2nd IE is lower than expected True for s2 x Alkali earth metals form 2+ ions x 3rd IE Using the same logic s2p1 atoms have an low 3rd IE x Atoms in the boron family form 3+ ions x 2nd IE and 3rd IE are always higher than 1st IE!!! x Symbol First H He Li Be B C N O F Ne 1312 2731 520 900 800 1086 1402 1314 1681 2080 Second 5247 7297 1757 2430 2352 2857 3391 3375 3963 Web elements Third 11810 14840 3569 4619 4577 5301 6045 6276 Ionic Size Cations are positive ions x Cations form by losing electrons x Cations are smaller than the atom they come from x Metals form cations x Cations of representative elements have noble gas configuration. x Ionic size Anions are negative ions x Anions form by gaining electrons x Anions are bigger than the atom they come from x Nonmetals form anions x Anions of representative elements have noble gas configuration. x Configuration of Ions x Ions of representative elements have noble gas configuration Na is 1s22s22p63s1 x x Forms a 1+ ion - 1s22s22p6 x Same configuration as neon x Metals form ions with the configuration of the noble gas before them - they lose electrons Configuration of Ions Non-metals form ions by gaining electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. x They end up with the configuration of the noble gas after them. x Group trends Adding energy level x Ions get bigger as you go down x H1+ Li1+ Na1+ K1+ Rb1+ Cs1+ Periodic Trends Across the period nuclear charge increases so they get smaller. x Energy level changes between anions and cations x Li1+ Be 2+ B 3+ N3- O2- F1- C4+ Size of Isoelectronic ions Iso - same x Iso electronic ions have the same # of electrons x Al3+ Mg2+ Na1+ Ne F1- O2- and N3x all have 10 electrons x x all have the configuration 1s22s22p6 Size of Isoelectronic ions x Positive ions have more protons so they are smaller Al +3 Na+1 Ne F-1 O-2 N-3 Mg+2 Electronegativity Electronegativity The tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element. x How “greedy” x Big electronegativity means it pulls the electron toward it. x Group Trend The further down a group • More shielding • more electrons an atom has. x Less attraction for electrons x Low electronegativity. x Periodic Trend Metals - left end x Low nuclear charge x Low attraction x Low electronegativity x Right end - nonmetals x High nuclear charge x Large attraction x High electronegativity x Not noble gases- no compounds x Ionization energy, electronegativity INCREASE Atomic size increases, Ionic size increases Energy Levels & Shielding Nuclear Charge How to answer why questions Trend • Periodic • Group x Reason • Nuclear charge • Energy level and shielding x Result • What happens to which electron x Trend across a period As you go down a group Reason the nuclear charge energy level and shielding increases Result electron ______ to remove Making the pull _____ on the other atom’s electron outer electrons are _______. so the ______ is _______. ...
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cm14 - Chapter 6 The Periodic Table The how and why History...

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