cm16 - Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms Rutherfords Model h h h...

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Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms
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Rutherford’s Model h Discovered the nucleus h Small dense and positive h Electrons moved around in Electron cloud
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Bohr’s Model h Why don’t the electrons fall into the nucleus? h Move like planets around the sun. h In circular orbits at different levels. h Energy separates one level from another.
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Bohr’s Model Nucleus Electron Orbit Energy Levels
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Bohr’s Model Nucleus Electron Orbit Energy Levels
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Bohr’s Model Increasing energy Nucleus First Second Third Fourth Fifth } Further away from the nucleus means more energy. There is no “in between” energy Energy Levels
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The Quantum Mechanical Model h Energy is quantized. It comes in chunks. h Quanta - the amount of energy needed to move from one energy level to another. h Quantum leap in energy. h Schrödinger derived an equation that described the energy and position of the electrons in an atom h Treated electrons as waves
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a mathematical solution h It is not like anything you can see. The Quantum Mechanical Model
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Does have energy levels for electrons. h Orbits are not circular. h It can only tell us the probability of finding an electron a certain distance from the nucleus. The Quantum Mechanical Model
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The electron is found inside a blurry “electron cloud” h An area where there is a chance of finding an electron. h Draw a line at 90 % The Quantum Mechanical Model
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Atomic Orbitals h Principal Quantum Number (n) = the energy level of the electron. h Within each energy level the complex math of Schrödinger's equation describes several shapes. h These are called atomic orbitals h Regions where there is a high probability of finding an electron.
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1 s orbital for every energy level h Spherical shaped h Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons h Called the 1s, 2s, 3s, etc. . orbitals. S orbitals
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P orbitals h Start at the second energy level h 3 different directions h 3 different shapes (dumbell) h Each can hold 2 electrons
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P Orbitals
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D orbitals h Start at the third energy level h 5 different shapes h Each can hold 2 electrons
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F orbitals h Start at the fourth energy level h Have seven different shapes h 2 electrons per shape
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F orbitals Images J mol
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Summary s p d f # of shapes Max electrons Starts at energy level 1 2 1 3 6 2 5 10 3 7 14 4
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By Energy Level h First Energy Level h only s orbital h only 2 electrons h 1s 2 h Second Energy Level h s and p orbitals are available h 2 in s, 6 in p h 2s 2 2p 6 h 8 total electrons
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Filling order h Lowest energy fill first. h The energy levels overlap h The orbitals do not fill up order of energy level. h Counting system h Each box is an orbital shape h Room for two electrons
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Increasing energy 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f
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Increasing energy 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 3d 4d 5d 7p 6d 4f 5f
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Electron Configurations h The way electrons are arranged in atoms. h
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This document was uploaded on 02/06/2011.

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cm16 - Chapter 5 Electrons in Atoms Rutherfords Model h h h...

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