1.) Half-way covenant
was a form of partial church membership created by
in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend
felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original
religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children
and grandchildren often expressed less religious
, and more desire for material
wealth. Response to the Half-Way Covenant may have sown the seeds for the
in the 1730s, launched by Stoddard's grandson
with Calvinist evangelist
, Edwards preached that God is "in the now"
and that there must be an "urgent call for languid will," in response to the half-hearted
will that the Half-Way Covenant allows.
, thought to be a form of
that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of
, and that
is "unchangeable". Economic assets (or capital)
are represented by
(gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best
increased through a positive
balance of trade
with other nations (exports minus imports).
were a series of
that restricted the use of foreign
for trade between England (after 1707
) and its colonies, which
started in 1651. At their outset, they were a factor in the
. Later, they
were one of several sources of resentment in the American colonies against Great Britain,
helping cause the
American Revolutionary War
. They formed the basis for British
overseas trade for nearly 200 years.
The Navigation Act 1660 added a twist to Oliver
Cromwell's act; ships' crews had to be three-quarters English, and "enumerated"
products not produced by the mother country, such as tobacco, cotton, and sugar were to
be shipped from the colonies only to England or other English colonies. The Navigation
Act 1663 (also called the Act for the Encouragement of Trade) required all European
goods bound for America (or other colonies) to be shipped through England first. In
England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and reloaded. The trade
had to be carried in English bottoms (i.e. vessels), which included those of its colonies.
Furthermore, imports of 'enumerated commodities' (such as sugar, rice, and tobacco)