Doc-29011 - 1 Half-way covenant The Half-Way Covenant was a...

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1.) Half-way covenant The Half-Way Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard , who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety , and more desire for material wealth. Response to the Half-Way Covenant may have sown the seeds for the First Great Awakening in the 1730s, launched by Stoddard's grandson Jonathan Edwards . Along with Calvinist evangelist George Whitefield , Edwards preached that God is "in the now" and that there must be an "urgent call for languid will," in response to the half-hearted will that the Half-Way Covenant allows. 2.) Mercantilism is an economic theory , thought to be a form of economic nationalism , [1] that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital , and that the global volume of international trade is "unchangeable". Economic assets (or capital) are represented by bullion (gold, silver, and trade value) held by the state, which is best increased through a positive balance of trade with other nations (exports minus imports). 3.) The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain ) and its colonies, which started in 1651. At their outset, they were a factor in the Anglo-Dutch Wars . Later, they were one of several sources of resentment in the American colonies against Great Britain, helping cause the American Revolutionary War . They formed the basis for British overseas trade for nearly 200 years. The Navigation Act 1660 added a twist to Oliver Cromwell's act; ships' crews had to be three-quarters English, and "enumerated" products not produced by the mother country, such as tobacco, cotton, and sugar were to be shipped from the colonies only to England or other English colonies. The Navigation Act 1663 (also called the Act for the Encouragement of Trade) required all European goods bound for America (or other colonies) to be shipped through England first. In England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and reloaded. The trade had to be carried in English bottoms (i.e. vessels), which included those of its colonies. Furthermore, imports of 'enumerated commodities' (such as sugar, rice, and tobacco)
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2010 for the course BIOS 140 taught by Professor Webster during the Spring '08 term at DeVry Austin.

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Doc-29011 - 1 Half-way covenant The Half-Way Covenant was a...

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