cognitions - Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology C o...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology C o n c e p ts H e u r is tic s R e p r e s e n ta tiv e n e s s A v a ila b ility F ra m in g C o n fir m a tio n B ia s B e lie f P e rs e v e ra n c e F u n c tio n a l F ix e d n e s s O v e r c o n fid e n c e P h e n o m e n o n T h in k in g E rro rs What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? A . P e o p le te n d to b e r a tio n a l B . P e o p le te n d to b e ir r a tio n a l C. Everyone’s brain is like a camera D. Everyone’s brain is like a tape recorder What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? B. PEOPLE TEND TO BE IRRATIONAL!!** Continuum P e r c e p tio n P e r c e p tio n - - C o n s tr u c tiv is t M in d s e e s w h a t ’ s o u t th e re E y e = c a m e ra Illu s io n s E y e is N O T a c a m e r a S o c ia l S o c ia l R e a lity in in d iv id u a ls O b je c tiv e S itu a tio n is m a lle a b le M e m o ry M e m o ry F la s h b u lb m e m o r ie s M e m o r y is N O T a ta p e r e c o r d e r C o g n itio n — R a tio n a l M in d is Ir r a tio n a l Concepts: The building blocks of thinking O u r c o n c e p ts s im p lify & o r d e r th e w o r ld O r g a n iz e it in to a h ie r a r c h y o f c a te g o r ie s Prototypes C o n c e p ts fo r m a r o u n d p r o to ty p e s B est e x a m p le o f a c a te g o r y A n in te lle c tu a l fe m a le , s h o r t a n d th in a n d r e a d s m u c h : Is s h e : A . p r o fe s s o r o f c la s s ic s B . tr u c k d r iv e r Heuristics R u le s o f th u m b th a t h e lp in s im p lify in g p ro b le m s & b rin g in g s o lu tio n s w /in r e a c h L ittle We tr ic k s a ll u s e th e m Heuristics The R e p r e s e n ta tiv e n e s s H e u r is tic T o ju d g e th e lik e lih o o d o f th in g s in te r m s o f h o w w e ll th e y fit o r r e p r e s e n t p a r tic u la r p ro to ty p e s Representativeness Heuristic If someone matches our prototype, we allow that to override considerations of statistics & logic Heuristics (cont’d) A v a ila b ility H e u r is tic W hen w e base our ju d g m e n ts o n th e a v a ila b ility o f in fo r m a tio n in o u r m e m o r ie s P la n e c ra s h e s v s . c a r c ra s h e s If in s ta n c e s o f a n e v e n t a r e : e a s ily a v a ila b le o r c o m e to m in d r e a d ily , … … w e p r e s u m e s u c h e v e n ts a r e c o m m o n Availability Heuristic T h e fa s te r p e o p le c a n r e m e m b e r a n in s ta n c e o f s o m e e v e n t, th e m o r e th e y e x p e c t it to r e c u r ‘a b r o k e n p r o m is e ’ Availability Heuristic (cont’d) L o tte r y We Don ’ t r e c a ll v iv id ly th e 1 p e r s o n w h o w in s h e a r a b o u t 5 m illio n lo s e r s Availability Heuristic (cont’d) E x a m p le o f P re ju d ic e W hen o n e v iv id a c t b y a p e r s o n c a u s e s u s to ju d g e th e e n tir e r a c e o r g e n d e r o r g r o u p Framing T h e w a y a n is s u e is p o s e d o r fr a m e d c a n s ig n ific a n tly a ffe c t d e c is io n s & ju d g m e n ts How How y o u s ta te a q u e s tio n a ffe c ts th e r e s p o n s e is s u e is p o s e d c a n a ffe c t v o tin g Confirmation Bias O u r te n d e n c y to s e a r c h fo r in fo r m a tio n th a t c o n fir m s o u r id e a s Ir r a tio n a l A m a jo r o b s ta c le o f p r o b le m s o lv in g Belief Perseverance C lin g in g to o n e ’ s in itia l c o n c e p tio n s a fte r th e b a s is o n w h ic h th e y w e r e fo r m e d h a s b e e n d is c r e d ite d R u in in g someone’s reputation, then info is p r o v id e d to d is c r e d it, b u t o p in io n s c o n tin u e Belief Perseverance (cont’d) S o m e o n e te lls y o u y o u r n e w r o o m m a te is a th ie f N e x t d a y , th e y th e n s a y ‘ O n ly k id d in g ’ Y o u ’ l l a lw a y s b e o n th e lo o k - o u t fo r th is p o te n tia l Belief Perseverance (cont’d) E x p e rim e n t L e p p e r, R o s s , & L a u — s h o w e d c o n fu s in g film d id p o o r o n p r o b le m s o lv in g D e b r ie fin g — s u b je c ts s till fe lt in c o m p e te n t S u b je c ts Belief Perseverance (cont’d) E .g .M ic h a e l J a c k s o n D iffic u lt to fix n e g a tiv e s e lf- im a g e OJ W ho th e e ls e ? ? s tig m a te n d s to s tic k Functional Fixedness T h e te n d e n c y to th in k o f th in g s o n ly in te r m s o f th e ir u s u a l fu n c tio n s An We im p e d im e n t to p r o b le m s o lv in g te n d to n o t ‘ t h in k o u ts id e th e b o x ’ 9 Dots Problem 9 Dots Problem O u r m in d s s e e th e d o ts a s a s q u a r e & s e t u p a r tific ia l b o u n d a r ie s th a t a r e h a r d to b r e a k th r o u g h W e m a y h a v e a s s u m e d th e lin e s w e r e to p a s s th r o u g h th e c e n te r o f th e d o ts ( b u t n o t p a r t o f th e p r o b le m ) Candle Problem U s in g th e s e m a te r ia ls , h o w w o u ld y o u m o u n t th e c a n d le o n th e b u lle tin b o a r d ? ? M a tc h e s C a n d le Tacks Overconfidence Phenomenon T h e te n d e n c y to o v e r e s tim a te th e a c c u r a c y o f o u r c u rre n t k n o w le d g e Thinking Errors Black & White Thinking: All or nothing thinking Y o u v ie w a s itu a tio n in o n ly 2 c a te g o r ie s in s te a d o f o n a c o n tin u u m B o r d e r lin e : d o 1 th in g w r o n g & th e y h a te y o u Catastrophisizing: (fortune telling) P r e d ic t th e fu tu r e n e g a tiv e ly w /o u t c o n s id e r in g o th e r , m o r e lik e ly o u tc o m e s M ake m o u n ta in s o u t o f m o le h ills G A D (G e n e r a l i z e d A n x i e t y D i s o r d e r) Discounting or disqualifying (the positive) Y o u u n r e a s o n a b ly te ll y o u r s e lf th a t p o s itiv e e x p e r ie n c e , d e e d s o r q u a litie s d o not count I ju s t g o t lu c k y ! Emotional Reasoning Y o u th in k s o m e th in g m u s t b e t r u e b e c a u s e y o u ‘ f e e l’ ( a c tu a lly b e lie v e ? ) it s o s tr o n g ly Ig n o r e e v id e n c e to th e c o n tr a r y i.e . “ I k n o w I d o a lo t o f th in g s o k a y a t w o r k but I still feel like I’m a failure” Y o u a s s u m e th a t y o u r n e g a tiv e e m o tio n s n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t th e w a y th in g s r e a lly a r e : I fe e l te r r ifie d a b o u t g o in g o n a n a ir p la n e s , It m u s t b e v e r y d a n g e r o u s to fly I fe e l g u ilty , I m u s t b e a r o tte n p e r s o n I fe e l a n g r y , th is p r o v e s I ’ m b e in g tr e a te d u n fa ir ly I fe e l in fe r io r , th is m e a n s I ’ m a s e c o n d r a te p e r s o n I fe e l h o p e le s s , I m u s t r e a lly b e h o p e le s s Labeling A fix e d g lo b a l la b e l o n s e lf o r o th e r s w /o u t c o n s id e rin g a ll e v id e n c e Label a n in d iv id u a l & lo o k fo r c h a r a c te r is tic s th a t c o n fir m la b e l Dangerous Labels P ris o n e r P s y c h ia tr ic p a tie n t H y p e r a c tiv e c h ild Mind Reading Y o u b e lie v e y o u k n o w w h a t o th e r s a r e th in k in g B a s ic a lly p r o je c t y o u r fe a r s o n to a n o th e r p e rs o n Personalization Y o u b e lie v e o th e r s a r e b e h a v in g n e g a tiv e ly b e c a u s e o f y o u , w ith o u t c o n s id e r in g m o r e lik e ly e x p la n a tio n s Magnification/ minimization: Binocular trick W h e n y o u e v a lu a te : a n o th e r p e r s o n y o u rs e lf o r s itu a tio n y o u u n r e a s o n a b ly m a g n ify th e n e g a tiv e , & /o r m in im iz e th e p o s itiv e , d e s ir a b le q u a litie s If y o u d o a g o o d jo b , y o u m a y te ll y o u r s e lf th a t it w a s n ’ t g o o d e n o u g h o r th a t a n y o n e c o u ld h a v e d o n e a s w e ll T a k e s th e jo y o u t o f life & m a k e s y o u fe e l in a d e q u a te & u n re w a rd e d G e ttin g h ig h g r a d e s d o e s n ’ t m e a n I ’ m s m a rt “Should” “Must” “Ought” “Have to” ( a ls o c a lle d im p e r a t iv e s ) : Y o u h a v e a p r e c is e , f ix e d id e a o f h o w y o u o r o t h e r s s h o u ld b e h a v e & y o u o v e r e s t im a t e h o w b a d it is t h a t t h e s e e x p e c t a t io n s a re n o t m e t i.e . “ I t ’ s te r r ib le th a t I m a d e a m is ta k e I s h o u ld a lw a y s … … b la h , b la h , b la h Tunnel vision Y o u o n ly s e e th e n e g a tiv e a s p e c ts o f a s itu a tio n i.e., “My son’ s teacher can’t do anything r ig h t. H e ’ s c r itic a l & in s e n s itiv e & lo u s y a t te a c h in g . ” W h ic h o f th e fo llo w in g c o g n itiv e c o n c e p ts is d e fin e d a s c lin g in g to o n e ’ s in itia l c o n c e p tio n s a fte r th e b a s is o n w h ic h th e y w e r e fo r m e d h a s b e e n d is c r e d ite d ? A . D is c o u n tin g B . C o n fir m a tio n B ia s C . B e lie f P e rs e v e ra n c e D . O v e r c o n fid e n c e P h e n o m e n o n Social Psychology 2 main lessons of social psychology fundamental attribution errors What did Asch find Milgram’s experiment 2 questions Social psychology and LOVE Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Foot-in-the-door Phenomena. Cognitive Dissonance Theory d e in d iv id u a tio n . in fo r m a tio n a l s o c ia l in flu e n c e . n o r m a tiv e s o c ia l in flu e n c e . g r o u p th in k . a ltr u is tic s o c ia l e x c h a n g e th e o r y e q u ity a ffilia tio n th e tw o - fa c to r th e o r y o f e m o tio n “Eye of the Storm” p r e d ju d ic e ( 3 th e o r ie s ) S e n s a t io n a n d P e r c e p t io n s u b lim in a l m e s s a g e , c o lo r c o n e s a n d b lin d r o d s s e n s o r y a d a p t a t io n S h a p e , s iz e , c o lo r c o n s t a n c y v is u a l c a p t u r e p e rc e p tu a l s e t T h e c o n tra s t e ffe c t B in o c u la r c u e s : R e t in a l d is p a r it y C o n v e rg e n c e la w o f c o n t in u it y C lo s u r e , lin e a r p e r s p e c t iv e , p r o x im it y , s im ila r it y C o n s c io u s n e s s s le e p a p n e a , in s o m n ia , n a r c o le p s y . n ig h t t e r r o r s H y p n o s is dre a m w ork c o n d e n s a t io n d is p la c e m e n t l a te n t w o r k m a n if e s t w o r k S in g e r : d a y d r e a m s 4 t h e o r ie s o f d r e a m s M e m ory L o ftu s R e a lit y M o n it o r in g d é jà v u . f la s h b u lb m e m o r y . S e ns ory M e m ory Ic o n ic M e m o r y E c h o ic M e m o r y M n e m o n ic D e v ic e C o n te x t-D e p e n d e n t M e m o r y S ta te -D e p e n d e n t M e m o r y C o g n it io n C a t a s t r o p h iz in g D is c o u n t in g O v e r c o n f id e n c e P h e n o m e n o n f r a m in g . c o n f ir m a t io n b ia s . b e lie f p e r s e v e r a n c e f u n c t io n a l f ix e d n e s s r e p r e s e n t a t iv e h e u r is t ic t h e a v a ila b ilit y h e u r is t ic Irrational thoughts la b e lin g p e r s o n a liz a t io n B la c k a n d w h ite th in k in g E m o tio n a l r e a s o n in g ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course PSYCH 120 taught by Professor Lebrenton during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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