exam 1 review - Key Components Key of Science = O b s e r v...

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Unformatted text preview: Key Components Key of Science = O b s e r v a tio n E x p la n a tio n Zeitgeist= Spirit of the times Plato: Nature knowledge is present at birth Aristotle: NURTURE Mind is like a blank does slate EXPERIENCE writing Dark Ages (1st major decline within) St. Thomas Aquinas A c c e p te d b o th r e a s o n & fa ith a s a w a y o f k n o w in g G o d Phineas Gage 1st s chool o f P S Y C H O LO G Y 1879 Wundt Structuralism science of mental life (2nd major decline within Structuralism) P e r k y im a g e le s s th o u g h t c o n tr o v e r s y (3rd major decline within Behaviorism) Skinner Brelands instinctive drift overrides reinforcement biology W h a t is th e c o g n itiv e r e v o lu tio n ? What is the proper attitude of a psychologist? O p e n m in d e d n e s s S k e p tic is m H u m ility What is the Scientific Method? O b s e rv e D e te c t r e g u la r itie s G e n e r a te h y p o th e s is O b s e rv e a g a in What is a Hypothesis? An educated guess testable prediction hunch A A Descriptive Statistics M e a n – A v e ra g e M o d e – M o s t fr e q u e n t s c o r e M e d ia n – M id d le p o in t ( h a lf b e lo w , h a lf above) V a r ia b ility – H o w m u c h s c o r e s d iffe r fr o m e a c h o th e r R a n g e – D iffe r e n c e b e tw e e n th e h ig h e s t a n d th e lo w e s t S ta n d a r d D e v ia tio n – H o w m u c h s c o r e s d iffe r fr o m th e m e a n Correlation Coefficiants V a ry fro m + 1 .0 0 to -1 .0 0 0 (Z e ro ) = N o R e la tio n s h ip = P o s itiv e r e la tio n s h ip = N e g a tiv e r e la tio n s h ip +1 -1 2 Conditions E x p e r im e n ta l C o n d itio n : T h e c o n d itio n th a t e x p o s e s s u b je c ts to th e in d e p e n d e n t v a ria b le ( v io le n t T V ) Control Condition A condition identical to the experimental one except that subjects are not exposed to the independent are variable Equal length non-violent TV (sports) NEUROSCIENCE: Understanding Brain & its Relation to Behavior S e r o t o n in : a f f e c t s m o o d ( d e p r e s s io n ) , h u n g e r ( e a t in g d is o r d e r s ) , s le e p ( d r e a m in g ) , a r o u s a l ( O C D ) 3 Neurotransmitters implicate in cocaine, love, depression D o p a m in e : lin k e d t o e m o t io n , h ig h le v e ls in s c h iz o p h r e n ia , in t e n s e p le a s u r e , lo w levels linked to Parkinson’s disease N o r e p in e p h r in e : a le r t n e s s & a r o u s a l ( lo w le v e ls d e p r e s s m o o d ) Other neurotransmitters A c e t y lc h o lin e : lin k e d le a r n in g , m e m o r y ( A lz h e im e r ’ s ) G A B A : l o w le v e ls lin k e d to a n x ie ty , s e iz u r e s , tr e m o r s , in s o m n ia E n d o r p h i n s : m o r p h i n e w i t h i n , “c h e m i c a l p a in k ille rs ” Glutamate: involved in memory (high levels m ig ra in e s a n d s e iz u re s ) Stages of Brain Evolution 1. 1. Brain Stem= Survival (Hind Brain) 2. Limbic System= 2. Emotion +Memory (Mid brain) 3.Cerebral Cortex = Information Processing, Foresight (Forebrain) Each part is built on top of the other Brain Stem consists of M e d u lla Cerebellum (p o n s ) R e tic u la r F o r m a tio n T h a la m u s Limbic System (Midbrain) E m o tio n M o tiv a tio n M e m o ry Limbic System (cont’d) Amygdala aggression fear Limbic System cont’ Nucleus Accumbens pleasure center Limbic System (cont’d) H y p o th a la m u s C o n tr o ls e n d o c r in e s y s te m H u n g e r & th ir s t S e x b e h a v io r * * s le e p * * b o d y te m p e r a tu r e **m o ve m e n t Corpus callosum Teratogens A g e n ts s u c h a s c h e m ic a ls o r v ir u s e s th a t c a n r e a c h th e e m b r y o o r fe tu s d u r in g p r e n a ta l d e v e lo p m e n t a n d c a u s e h a rm breast feeding? D o e s it p r o v id e im p o r ta n t p s y c h o lo g ic a l b e n e fits to th e b a b y ? Emotional Development:Surrogate mothers b a b y a tta c h e d to c u d d ly m o th e r a n d th e n le a n e d o v e r to w ir e m o th e r fo r fe e d in g phenotype Physical Behavioral Psychological features that are the result of the interaction between one’s genes and the environment Attachment: Ainsworth Secure Insecure A v o id a n t R e s is ta n t Erickson stages CONCEPTS S c h e m a – S im p le id e a s a b o u t h o w th e w o r ld w o r k s A s s im ila te – ( m a in ta in s c h e m a ) A c c o m m o d a te – (c h a n g e s c h e m a ) Piaget’s Stages (cont’d) 2 -6 Y e a rs P r e o p e r a tio n a l P h a s e C h ild r e p r e s e n ts th in g s w /w o r d s & im a g e s , b u t c a n n o t c o n n e c t w /lo g ic . A b ility to p r e te n d , e x p e r im e n ta tio n Piaget O b je c t p e rm a n e n c e S tr a n g e r a n x ie ty c o n s e r v a tio n Kohlberg – Moral Thinking P r e - C o n v e n tio n a l M o r a lity C o n v e n tio n a l M o r a lity P o s t- C o n v e n tio n a l M o r a lity 3 Styles of Discipline A u th o r ita r ia n P a r e n tin g A u th o r ita tiv e P a r e n tin g P e r m is s iv e P a r e n tin g W a r m th c o n tr o l Puberty a p e r io d o f r a p id s k e le ta l & s e x u a l m a tu r a tio n th a t o c c u r s m a in ly in a d o le s c e n c e Otto Rank Wanted to know who becomes the most creative person in their field Klinefelter Syndrome XXY v e r y ta ll, lo n g a r m s & le g s , s o m e d e v e lo p b re a s t U n u s u a lly h ig h p itc h e d v o ic e L ittle b e a r d g r o w th S te r ile 1. 2. Biological sex dictates gender Gender—the social definition of male & female Gender Identity – one’s sense of male or female gender typing 3. 4. Theories of Gender Typing Freud’s Gender Identification Theory S o c ia l L e a rn in g T h e o ry C o g n itiv e D e v e lo p m e n ta l T h e o r y G e n d e r S c h e m a T h e o ry Androgyny Possession of desirable psychological traits traditionally associated with both men & women DEATH Kubler-Ross’s 5 Stages Marriage satisfaction R a tio n o f th e ir p o s itiv e to n e g a tiv e in te r a c tio n s w ith e a c h o th e r Levinson 1. Define your dream of adult accomplishment 2. Find a mentor m ix tu r e B oss, o f p a r e n t & fr ie n d o ld e r s tu d e n t, te a c h e r S o m e o n e w h o is liv in g y o u r d r e a m . 3. Develop a vocation 4. Open up to new intimate relationships 1. According to Freud, the #1 defense mechanism is: A . d e n ia l B . s u p p re s s io n C . F re u d ia n s lip D . re p re s s io n 2. Which strategy for resolving fragmentation is an experience that serves to maintain a cohesive self experience? A . s e lf o b je c tiv e e x p e r ie n c e B . m irro rin g n e e d C . id e a liz in g n e e d s D . v a lid a tio n ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course PSYCH 120 taught by Professor Lebrenton during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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