sensations - Sensation and Perception Sen s ati o n...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Sensation and Perception Sen s ati o n & P e rc e p t i o n Sensation vs. Perception B lu rry b a s e b a ll c o m in g a t y o u ? ? S E N S A T IO N O n c e y o u r e a liz e , in te r p r e t, th e b lo b is a b a s e b a ll ! P E R C E P T IO N 1 Definitions Sensation = process by which stimulus energies are detected & encoded = processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations of sensations Perception organization Interpretations differ W h a t if y o u a r e in Ir a q , o r Is r a e l d u r in g w a r tim e ? ? W h a t w o u ld y o u s e e ? Absolute Threshold T h e m in im u m s tim u la tio n n e e d e d to d e te c t a p a r tic u la r s tim u lu s 5 0 % o f th e tim e 2 Subliminal Messages Messages presented below one’s absolute th r e s h o ld fo r c o n s c io u s a w a r e n e s s N o t s tr o n g e n o u g h to b e r e c o g n iz e d Subliminal Messages: C a n s u b tly in flu e n c e p e o p le , b u t n e v e r c o n tr o l b e h a v io r E x p e r im e n t: o n p r e fe r e n c e 3 Sensory Adaptation S e n s o r y A d a p ta tio n = d im in is h e d s e n s itiv ity a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f c o n s ta n t s tim u la tio n Could you adapt to an upside down world? 4 Photoreceptor Cells Cones C o lo r s e n s itiv e C o n c e n tr a te d a ro u n d fo v e a ( th e c e n tr a l fo c u s o n th e r e tin a ) Photoreceptor Cells (cont’d) Rods C o lo r b lin d in th e p e r ip h e r y P r e d o m in a te Is the eye a camera? 5 Perception P e r c e p tu a l O r g a n iz a tio n D ir e c t ( G ib s o n ) vs C o n s tr u c tiv is t ( R o c k ) E y e is N O T a c a m e r a Visual Capture T h e te n d e n c y fo r v is io n to d o m in a te th e o th e r s e n s e s 6 Figure Ground 7 Perceptual Set T e n d e n c y to s e e o n e th in g o r th e o th e r w h e n d e a lin g w ith r e v e r s ib le fig u r e s V ases v s . fa c e s Perceptual Set (cont’d) P e r c e p tu a l s e t c a n b e in flu e n c e d b y c o n te x t & c u ltu r e Y o u n g e r p e o p le te n d to see younger w om an O ld e r p e o p le te n d to s e e o ld e r p e rs o n 8 9 10 11 12 How does the artist give illusion? 13 Depth Perception M o n o c u la r C u e s B in o c u la r C u e s O n ly u s e 1 e y e U se of 2 eyes Monocular Cues R e la tiv e S iz e If w e a s s u m e 2 o b je c ts a r e s im ila r s iz e , w e p e r c e iv e th e o n e th a t c a s ts th e s m a lle r im a g e a s fa r th e r a w a y Monocular Cues (cont’d) O v e rla p W hen 1 o b je c t is p a r tia lly c o v e r e d b y a n o th e r , w e p e r c e iv e it a s fa r th e r a w a y 14 Monocular Cues (cont’d) L in e a r p e r s p e c tiv e /d is ta n c e We p e r c e iv e th e c o n v e r g e n c e o f w h a t w e k n o w to b e p a r a lle l lin e s a s in d ic a tin g in c r e a s e d d is ta n c e Monocular Cues (cont’d) T e x tu r e G r a d ie n t We p e r c e iv e a g ra d u a l b u t c o n tin u o u s c h a n g e fr o m a c o a r s e r , m o r e d is tin c t, to a fin e r , le s s d is tin c t te x tu r a l e le m e n t a s in d ic a tin g in c r e a s in g d is ta n c e Binocular Cues R e tin a l D is p a r ity R e fe r s to th e s o m e w h a t d iffe r e n t im a g e s o u r 2 e y e s r e c e iv e o f th e s a m e o b je c t E x a m p le : flo a tin g fin g e r s a u s a g e 15 Binocular Cues (cont’d) C o n v e rg e n c e E x te n t to w h ic h th e e y e s c o n v e r g e in w a r d w h e n lo o k in g a t a n o b je c t Gestalt Principles of Organization P r o x im ity Near e a c h o th e r , w e g r o u p to g e th e r (ex: 2 people on a bus—perceived as a couple w h o g e t o n & o ff a t th e s a m e s to p ) Gestalt Principles of Organization S im ila r ity If s im ila r , w e g r o u p to g e th e r 16 Gestalt Principles of Organization C lo s u re If a fig u r e h a s g a p s , w e c o m p le te it Cube N ecker Gestalt Principles of Organization C o n tin u ity We p e r c e iv e s m o o th , c o n tin u o u s p a tte r n s , n o t d is c o n tin u o u s o n e s Perceptual Constancy S h a p e C o n s ta n c y R e g a r d le s s o f m o v e m e n t, s h a p e is s till th e sam e E x a m p le : o p e n v s . c lo s e d d o o r 17 Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) C o lo r C o n s ta n c y C o lo r lo o k s d iffe r e n t in d iffe r e n t lig h ts , b u t is th e s a m e Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) S iz e C o n s ta n c y O b je c ts /p e o p le far away—still the same size, a lth o u g h lo o k s m a lle r Contrast Effect A lth o u g h th e y a r e id e n tic a l, th e p e r c e iv e d lig h tn e s s o f th e in te r io r r e c ta n g le d iffe r s d e p e n d in g o n th e ir s u r r o u n d in g s 18 Chubb illusion Overconfidence phenomenon Ig n o r a n c e m o r e fr e q u e n tly b e g e ts confidence…… th a n d o e s k n o w le d g e -C h a rle s D a rw in Overconfidence Phenomenon T h e te n d e n c y to o v e r e s tim a te th e a c c u r a c y o f o u r c u rre n t k n o w le d g e 19 T h e in c la s s e x e rc is e show s: W e c a n b e v e ry c o n fid e n t a n d v e r y w ro n g Overconfidence T h e r e a r e a w id e r a n g e o f fa s c in a tin g b ia s e s in : S e n s a tio n & P e r c e p tio n M e m o ry Cognition…the way we think O v e r c o n fid e n c e p h e n o m e n o n can we trust Memory? 20 LIAR, LIAR? Or source memory confusion? Humans are meaning makers T h e m e a n in g t h a t a p e r s o n attributes to their life… s h a p e s & c o n s t r a in s t h e ir s e n s e o f t h e ir s e lf , t h e ir r e la t io n s h ip s , & t h e ir d if f ic u lt ie s T h e m e a n in g w e c r e a t e in t u r n c r e a t e s o u r e x p e r ie n c e o f t h e w o r ld Blind obedience? 21 22 A c c o r d in g to th e G e s ta lt P r in c ip le s o f O r g a n iz a tio n , w e a r e lik e ly to p e r c e iv e 2 p e o p le th a t g e t o n a n d o ff a t th e s a m e b u s s to p a s a c o u p le b e c a u s e o f th e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p rin c ip le . A ) S im ila r ity B ) P r o x im ity C ) C lo s u re D ) C o n tin u ity 23 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course PSYCH 120 taught by Professor Lebrenton during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online