{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

socia 19

# socia 19 - Mean for Exam 2= 75.3 H ig h e s t g ra d e = 1...

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Mean for Exam 2= 75.3% H ig h e s t g ra d e = 1 0 0 % L o w e s t g ra d e = 3 6 % S D 1 2 .7 M e d ia n = 7 8 % Extra credit: 10% points to one exam (76%+10%= 86%) M a k e a n o b s e r v a tio n o f p e o p le s o m e w h e r e a n d th e n g e n e r a te a h y p o th e s is a b o u t a p a tte r n o f b e h a v io r In a 5 p a g e p a p e r e x p lo r e th e a b o v e q u e s tio n b y fo llo w in g th e s te p s d e s c r ib e d n e x t: 1 . G o to g o o g le a n d lo o k a t a fe w a r tic le s ( o r fin d in fo r m a tio n ) th a t d is c u s s th is to p ic . S u m m a riz e , in y o u r o w n w o rd s w h a t y o u h a v e r e a d a n d th e n a r tic u la te th e s p e c ific h y p o th e s is . ( 1 /2 p a g e ) 2 . c r e a te a s u r v e y ( 5 - 1 0 q u e s tio n s ) th a t a s k s q u e s tio n s a b o u t y o u r to p ic . 1……. 2…….3……4……5………6………7 A g re e D is a g re e 3 . Y o u r s u b je c t p o o l s h o u ld in c lu d e a t le a s t 1 0 p a r tic ip a n ts . 4 . d e s c r ib e y o u r r e s u lts . 5 . D is c u s s io n : h e re is w h e re b a s e d o n y o u r r e s u lts y o u s p e c u la te a b o u t w h a t th e r e s u lts m ig h t m e a n Y o u c a n m e n tio n th e lite r a tu r e a n d a ls o p u t in y o u r o w n o p in io n h e re . Social Psychology First Lesson of Social Psychology behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION Our Fundamental Attribution Error T h e o b s e rv e r U n d e r e s tim a te s th e e ffe c t o f th e s itu a tio n A n d O v e r e s tim a te s i n n e r d is p o s itio n o f th e a c to r Just World Phenomenon A n a ttr ib u tio n E R R O R w h e r e th e a s s u m p tio n is m a d e th a t th e w o r ld is ju s t B la m e s Bad th e v ic tim th in g s h a p p e n to b a d p e o p le th in g s h a p p e n to g o o d p e o p le Good Suggestibility: Copycat Behavior S c h o o l S h o o tin g s G ro u p s u ic id e Informational Social Influence (‘good’ conformity) S h e r if ( 1 9 3 7 ) : A u to k in e tic E ffe c t A s ta tio n a r y d o t o f lig h t G a v e th e illu s io n o f m o v e m e n t S u b je c ts h a d to g u e s s h o w m a n y in c h e s it w a s m o v in g Three Participants Sherif (cont’d) D a y 1 : g re a t d is c re p a n c y D a y 2 : c a m e c lo s e r to g e th e r D a y 3 : e v e n c lo s e r D a y 4 : e x a c tly th e s a m e Normative Social Influence B a d c o n fo r m ity : c o n fo rm e v e n w h e n y o u know it’s wrong Group Think G r o u p T h in k = c o n fo r m ity b e c a u s e w e w a n t h a rm o n y w ith in th e g r o u p Group Pressure Conformity: Asch 1955 T h e g ro u p is c o m p o s e d o f re s e a rc h e rs : a ll lie 1 p e r s o n , s u b je c t, is o u t o f th e lo o p Need to m a tc h th e s ta n d a r d (C w a s a n s w e r) 8 t h t r i a l —a l l s a i d i t w a s “ A ” Asch continued A s c h d is c o v e re d : P e o p le w o u ld r a th e r b e lik e d th e n to b e r ig h t! Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 1. We are made to feel incompetent or insecure Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 2 . G ro u p h a s a t le a s t 3 p e o p le (f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s th e g r o u p s iz e to y ie ld s m a lle r in c re a s e s in c o n fo r m ity ) Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 3 .G r o u p is u n a n im o u s ( th e s u p p o r t o f a s in g le fe llo w d is s id e n t g r e a tly in c r e a s e s o u r s o c ia l c o u ra g e ) Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 4 . W e a d m ir e th e g r o u p ’ s s ta tu s & a ttr a c tiv e n e s s Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 5 . W e h a v e m a d e n o p r io r c o m m i tm e n t to a n y re s p o n s e Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 6. Our Behavior will be observed by others in the group Conditions that Strengthen Conformity (cont’d) W e h a v e b e e n s o c ia liz e d b y a c u ltu r e th a t s tr o n g ly e n c o u r a g e s r e s p e c t fo r s o c ia l s ta n d a r d s Milgram’s Experiment In te r e s te d in H itle r & h o w h e w a s a b le to g e t h is s o ld ie r s to c o m m it s u c h h o r r ib le a c ts w a s th e r e s o m e th in g a b o u t b e in g G e r m a n ? Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) W ill pay \$4 for participation in memory expt. o f te a c h e r S tu d e n t R o le Electric shocks Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) F o r e v e r y tim e s tu d e n t g e ts w o r d s w r o n g , w e w a n t y o u to u p th e v o lta g e S tu d e n t: s c re a m e d R e s e a r c h e r : “ I t is im p e r a tiv e th a t y o u c o n tin u e . ” Teacher cont’d to shock the a p p a re n t ‘ d e a d p e rs o n ’ Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) 6 5 % o f a d u lt m a le s fu lly c o m p lie d w/experimenter’s commands to continue d e s p ite h e a r in g c r ie s o f p r o te s t a fte r 3 3 0 v o lts Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) D is ta n c e m a n ip u la te d h o w c lo s e : ‘teacher’ was to ‘student’ ‘ researcher’ was to ‘ teacher’ Participants deceived about: P u rp o s e of e x p e r im e n t o f o th e r s u b je c t am ount of R o le A c tu a l shock Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) F u n d a m e n ta l L e s s o n E ven o r d in a r y p e o p le w h o a r e n o t u s u a lly h o s tile c a n b e c o m e a g e n ts o f d e s tr u c tio n Who’s responsible?? (can’t say it’s insanity) Cognitive Dissonance In M ig la r m ’ s e x p e r im e n t, th e te a c h e r g a v e : N a s ty in s u lts to v ic tim He’s a jerk! H e d e s e r v e d it! A c tio n fir s t; a ttitu d e second W hy? Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance Prior to Festinger the belief was: Attitude first Behavior follows NOW Behavior first Attitude follows Cognitive Dissonance T h e T e n s io n p ro d u c e d w h e n p e o p le a c t in a w a y th a t is in c o n s is te n t w ith th e ir a ttitu d e s T e n s io n is re d u c e d b y c h a n g in g a ttitu d e Cognitive dissonance cont’ We want h a rm o n y b e tw e e n w h a t w e b e lie v e & what we do get s h ifte d to s u p p o rt w h a t w e do A ttitu d e s F e s t i n g e r’ s b o tto m lin e a b o u t C o g n itiv e D is s o n a n c e : c o m e to v a lu e & a p p r e c ia te th o s e th in g s w e h a v e to s u ffe r fo r We Foot in the Door Phenomenon O n c e a p e r s o n h a s g r a n te d a s m a ll re q u e s t …..they are more likely to comply with a la r g e r o n e Foot in the Door Phenomenon (cont’d) J im J o n e s u s e d fo o t in d o o r Sent o u t fly e r s 1st—free dinners A n d b a b y s ittin g Low-Ball Technique 1 . In d u c e a p e r s o n to a g r e e to d o s o m e th in g 2 . R a is e c o s t o f c o m p lia n c e a fte r th e c o m m itm e n t to b e h a v io r has been m ade Door in the Face Phenomenon U n d e r c e r ta in c ir c u m s ta n c e s , a p e r s o n w h o h a s r e fu s e d to c o m p ly w ith a la r g e request….. m a y b e m o r e lik e ly to c o m p ly w ith a 2 n d s m a lle r re q u e s t 2nd Main Lesson of Social Psychology We construct the social reality all around us Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The process in which a person’s expectation about another person… elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (cont’d) T e a c h e r to ld C la s s # 1 : You S HOULD be neat T e a c h e r to ld C la s s # 2 : You A RE neat Cooley’s “Looking Glass Self”: the power of social constructions Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Emotional Cognitive factors Social: Rationalized inequalities E y e o f S to r m : p r e ju d ic e & d is c r im in a tio n a r e le a r n e d a ttitu d e s , w h ic h is th e k e y to th e ir e lim in a tio n Once prejudice is established, the inertia of conformity helps to maintain it Emotional Factors Scapegoat Drain anger from frustration self-esteem Boosts Cognitive Factors Schema is the way we process information By c h a r a c te r iz in g p e o p le b y g r o u p s th e y b e lo n g to , o r b y n o tic in g & r e m e m b e r in g v iv id c a s e s → w e c r e a te s te r e o ty p e s Altruism A c tin g in a w a y th a t s h o w s u n s e lfis h c o n c e r n fo r th e w e lfa r e o f o th e r s H e lp H e lp fo r n o r e a s o n even if don’t know person Bystander Effect R e lu c ta n c e to c o m e to th e a id o f a p e r s o n in n e e d w h e n o th e r s a r e p r e s e n t K itty G e n iv e s e Bystander Effect (cont’d) D iffu s io n o f R e s p o n s ib ility Id e a th a t w h e n w e th in k o th e r s a r e p r e s e n t, o u r s e n s e o f r e s p o n s ib ility d e c r e a s e s W h y s h o u ld I d o it? T h e r e a r e s o m a n y o th e r p e o p le 3 Theories of Altruism Social Social Exchange Norms Evolution 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) S o c ia l E x c h a n g e T h e o ry M a x im iz e M in im iz e o u r re w a rd s th e c o s ts 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) S o c ia l N o rm s T h e o ry R e c ip r o c a tin g th e h e lp w e r e c e iv e to w a r d th o s e in n e e d w e w e r e in n e e d , w e ’ d e x p e c t h e lp fr o m th e m a s w e ll R e s p o n s ib le If 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) E v o lu tio n G e n e tic p r e d is p o s itio n to p r e s e r v e o u r o w n g e n e s th r o u g h d e v o tio n to k in When do we help? Just o b s e r v e d s o m e o n e e ls e b e in g h e lp fu l ( c o p y c a t b e h a v io r ) 2. Not in a hurry 3. Recipient is similar to us (we identify with that person) 4. Recipient appears to need & deserve help 5.Feeling guilty (restore self image) 6. Not self-preoccupied (not being egocentric) 7.Most altruistic when in a good mood Deindividuation L o s s o f in d iv id u a lity o r d e p e r s o n a liz a tio n ( s e lf a w a r e n e s s ) th a t c o m e s fo r m b e in g in a g ro u p If y o u r n a m e is n o t k n o w n , m o r e lik e ly to s a y w hat you w ant In some rape cases, prosecutors describe the victim as partly to blame and evil. It is as if they believe they must have deserved the abuse. This best illustrates _____________. A . th e s o c ia l in e q u a lity th e o r y B . th e h in d s ig h t b ia s C . th e ju s t- w o r ld p h e n o m e n o n D . th e fu n d a m e n ta l a ttr ib u tio n e r r o r E . th e s c a p e g o a t th e o r y ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}