socia 19 - Mean for Exam 2= 75.3% H ig h e s t g ra d e = 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Mean for Exam 2= 75.3% H ig h e s t g ra d e = 1 0 0 % L o w e s t g ra d e = 3 6 % S D 1 2 .7 M e d ia n = 7 8 % Extra credit: 10% points to one exam (76%+10%= 86%) M a k e a n o b s e r v a tio n o f p e o p le s o m e w h e r e a n d th e n g e n e r a te a h y p o th e s is a b o u t a p a tte r n o f b e h a v io r In a 5 p a g e p a p e r e x p lo r e th e a b o v e q u e s tio n b y fo llo w in g th e s te p s d e s c r ib e d n e x t: 1 . G o to g o o g le a n d lo o k a t a fe w a r tic le s ( o r fin d in fo r m a tio n ) th a t d is c u s s th is to p ic . S u m m a riz e , in y o u r o w n w o rd s w h a t y o u h a v e r e a d a n d th e n a r tic u la te th e s p e c ific h y p o th e s is . ( 1 /2 p a g e ) 2 . c r e a te a s u r v e y ( 5 - 1 0 q u e s tio n s ) th a t a s k s q u e s tio n s a b o u t y o u r to p ic . 1……. 2…….3……4……5………6………7 A g re e D is a g re e 3 . Y o u r s u b je c t p o o l s h o u ld in c lu d e a t le a s t 1 0 p a r tic ip a n ts . 4 . d e s c r ib e y o u r r e s u lts . 5 . D is c u s s io n : h e re is w h e re b a s e d o n y o u r r e s u lts y o u s p e c u la te a b o u t w h a t th e r e s u lts m ig h t m e a n Y o u c a n m e n tio n th e lite r a tu r e a n d a ls o p u t in y o u r o w n o p in io n h e re . Social Psychology First Lesson of Social Psychology behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION Our Fundamental Attribution Error T h e o b s e rv e r U n d e r e s tim a te s th e e ffe c t o f th e s itu a tio n A n d O v e r e s tim a te s i n n e r d is p o s itio n o f th e a c to r Just World Phenomenon A n a ttr ib u tio n E R R O R w h e r e th e a s s u m p tio n is m a d e th a t th e w o r ld is ju s t B la m e s Bad th e v ic tim th in g s h a p p e n to b a d p e o p le th in g s h a p p e n to g o o d p e o p le Good Suggestibility: Copycat Behavior S c h o o l S h o o tin g s G ro u p s u ic id e Informational Social Influence (‘good’ conformity) S h e r if ( 1 9 3 7 ) : A u to k in e tic E ffe c t A s ta tio n a r y d o t o f lig h t G a v e th e illu s io n o f m o v e m e n t S u b je c ts h a d to g u e s s h o w m a n y in c h e s it w a s m o v in g Three Participants Sherif (cont’d) D a y 1 : g re a t d is c re p a n c y D a y 2 : c a m e c lo s e r to g e th e r D a y 3 : e v e n c lo s e r D a y 4 : e x a c tly th e s a m e Normative Social Influence B a d c o n fo r m ity : c o n fo rm e v e n w h e n y o u know it’s wrong Group Think G r o u p T h in k = c o n fo r m ity b e c a u s e w e w a n t h a rm o n y w ith in th e g r o u p Group Pressure Conformity: Asch 1955 T h e g ro u p is c o m p o s e d o f re s e a rc h e rs : a ll lie 1 p e r s o n , s u b je c t, is o u t o f th e lo o p Need to m a tc h th e s ta n d a r d (C w a s a n s w e r) 8 t h t r i a l —a l l s a i d i t w a s “ A ” Asch continued A s c h d is c o v e re d : P e o p le w o u ld r a th e r b e lik e d th e n to b e r ig h t! Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 1. We are made to feel incompetent or insecure Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 2 . G ro u p h a s a t le a s t 3 p e o p le (f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s th e g r o u p s iz e to y ie ld s m a lle r in c re a s e s in c o n fo r m ity ) Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 3 .G r o u p is u n a n im o u s ( th e s u p p o r t o f a s in g le fe llo w d is s id e n t g r e a tly in c r e a s e s o u r s o c ia l c o u ra g e ) Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 4 . W e a d m ir e th e g r o u p ’ s s ta tu s & a ttr a c tiv e n e s s Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 5 . W e h a v e m a d e n o p r io r c o m m i tm e n t to a n y re s p o n s e Conditions that Strengthen Conformity 6. Our Behavior will be observed by others in the group Conditions that Strengthen Conformity (cont’d) W e h a v e b e e n s o c ia liz e d b y a c u ltu r e th a t s tr o n g ly e n c o u r a g e s r e s p e c t fo r s o c ia l s ta n d a r d s Milgram’s Experiment In te r e s te d in H itle r & h o w h e w a s a b le to g e t h is s o ld ie r s to c o m m it s u c h h o r r ib le a c ts w a s th e r e s o m e th in g a b o u t b e in g G e r m a n ? Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) W ill pay $4 for participation in memory expt. o f te a c h e r S tu d e n t R o le Electric shocks Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) F o r e v e r y tim e s tu d e n t g e ts w o r d s w r o n g , w e w a n t y o u to u p th e v o lta g e S tu d e n t: s c re a m e d R e s e a r c h e r : “ I t is im p e r a tiv e th a t y o u c o n tin u e . ” Teacher cont’d to shock the a p p a re n t ‘ d e a d p e rs o n ’ Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) 6 5 % o f a d u lt m a le s fu lly c o m p lie d w/experimenter’s commands to continue d e s p ite h e a r in g c r ie s o f p r o te s t a fte r 3 3 0 v o lts Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) D is ta n c e m a n ip u la te d h o w c lo s e : ‘teacher’ was to ‘student’ ‘ researcher’ was to ‘ teacher’ Participants deceived about: P u rp o s e of e x p e r im e n t o f o th e r s u b je c t am ount of R o le A c tu a l shock Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) F u n d a m e n ta l L e s s o n E ven o r d in a r y p e o p le w h o a r e n o t u s u a lly h o s tile c a n b e c o m e a g e n ts o f d e s tr u c tio n Who’s responsible?? (can’t say it’s insanity) Cognitive Dissonance In M ig la r m ’ s e x p e r im e n t, th e te a c h e r g a v e : N a s ty in s u lts to v ic tim He’s a jerk! H e d e s e r v e d it! A c tio n fir s t; a ttitu d e second W hy? Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance Prior to Festinger the belief was: Attitude first Behavior follows NOW Behavior first Attitude follows Cognitive Dissonance T h e T e n s io n p ro d u c e d w h e n p e o p le a c t in a w a y th a t is in c o n s is te n t w ith th e ir a ttitu d e s T e n s io n is re d u c e d b y c h a n g in g a ttitu d e Cognitive dissonance cont’ We want h a rm o n y b e tw e e n w h a t w e b e lie v e & what we do get s h ifte d to s u p p o rt w h a t w e do A ttitu d e s F e s t i n g e r’ s b o tto m lin e a b o u t C o g n itiv e D is s o n a n c e : c o m e to v a lu e & a p p r e c ia te th o s e th in g s w e h a v e to s u ffe r fo r We Foot in the Door Phenomenon O n c e a p e r s o n h a s g r a n te d a s m a ll re q u e s t …..they are more likely to comply with a la r g e r o n e Foot in the Door Phenomenon (cont’d) J im J o n e s u s e d fo o t in d o o r Sent o u t fly e r s 1st—free dinners A n d b a b y s ittin g Low-Ball Technique 1 . In d u c e a p e r s o n to a g r e e to d o s o m e th in g 2 . R a is e c o s t o f c o m p lia n c e a fte r th e c o m m itm e n t to b e h a v io r has been m ade Door in the Face Phenomenon U n d e r c e r ta in c ir c u m s ta n c e s , a p e r s o n w h o h a s r e fu s e d to c o m p ly w ith a la r g e request….. m a y b e m o r e lik e ly to c o m p ly w ith a 2 n d s m a lle r re q u e s t 2nd Main Lesson of Social Psychology We construct the social reality all around us Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The process in which a person’s expectation about another person… elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (cont’d) T e a c h e r to ld C la s s # 1 : You S HOULD be neat T e a c h e r to ld C la s s # 2 : You A RE neat Cooley’s “Looking Glass Self”: the power of social constructions Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Emotional Cognitive factors Social: Rationalized inequalities E y e o f S to r m : p r e ju d ic e & d is c r im in a tio n a r e le a r n e d a ttitu d e s , w h ic h is th e k e y to th e ir e lim in a tio n Once prejudice is established, the inertia of conformity helps to maintain it Emotional Factors Scapegoat Drain anger from frustration self-esteem Boosts Cognitive Factors Schema is the way we process information By c h a r a c te r iz in g p e o p le b y g r o u p s th e y b e lo n g to , o r b y n o tic in g & r e m e m b e r in g v iv id c a s e s → w e c r e a te s te r e o ty p e s Altruism A c tin g in a w a y th a t s h o w s u n s e lfis h c o n c e r n fo r th e w e lfa r e o f o th e r s H e lp H e lp fo r n o r e a s o n even if don’t know person Bystander Effect R e lu c ta n c e to c o m e to th e a id o f a p e r s o n in n e e d w h e n o th e r s a r e p r e s e n t K itty G e n iv e s e Bystander Effect (cont’d) D iffu s io n o f R e s p o n s ib ility Id e a th a t w h e n w e th in k o th e r s a r e p r e s e n t, o u r s e n s e o f r e s p o n s ib ility d e c r e a s e s W h y s h o u ld I d o it? T h e r e a r e s o m a n y o th e r p e o p le 3 Theories of Altruism Social Social Exchange Norms Evolution 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) S o c ia l E x c h a n g e T h e o ry M a x im iz e M in im iz e o u r re w a rd s th e c o s ts 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) S o c ia l N o rm s T h e o ry R e c ip r o c a tin g th e h e lp w e r e c e iv e to w a r d th o s e in n e e d w e w e r e in n e e d , w e ’ d e x p e c t h e lp fr o m th e m a s w e ll R e s p o n s ib le If 3 Theories of Altruism (cont’d) E v o lu tio n G e n e tic p r e d is p o s itio n to p r e s e r v e o u r o w n g e n e s th r o u g h d e v o tio n to k in When do we help? Just o b s e r v e d s o m e o n e e ls e b e in g h e lp fu l ( c o p y c a t b e h a v io r ) 2. Not in a hurry 3. Recipient is similar to us (we identify with that person) 4. Recipient appears to need & deserve help 5.Feeling guilty (restore self image) 6. Not self-preoccupied (not being egocentric) 7.Most altruistic when in a good mood Deindividuation L o s s o f in d iv id u a lity o r d e p e r s o n a liz a tio n ( s e lf a w a r e n e s s ) th a t c o m e s fo r m b e in g in a g ro u p If y o u r n a m e is n o t k n o w n , m o r e lik e ly to s a y w hat you w ant In some rape cases, prosecutors describe the victim as partly to blame and evil. It is as if they believe they must have deserved the abuse. This best illustrates _____________. A . th e s o c ia l in e q u a lity th e o r y B . th e h in d s ig h t b ia s C . th e ju s t- w o r ld p h e n o m e n o n D . th e fu n d a m e n ta l a ttr ib u tio n e r r o r E . th e s c a p e g o a t th e o r y ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/06/2011 for the course PSYCH 120 taught by Professor Lebrenton during the Spring '10 term at Purdue.

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