Slides2 - POLAR COVALENT BONDS ELECTRONEGATIVITY 9.0 D 1.87...

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POLAR COVALENT BONDS - ELECTRONEGATIVITY H H X X Symmetrical covalent bond Ionic bond Cl Na X Y Polar covalent bond Cl H X Y Ionic character H 2.1 B 2.0 C 2.5 N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Li 1.0 Al 1.5 Si 1.8 P 2.1 S 2.5 Cl 2.8 Na 0.9 Be 1.6 electronegativity Cl C H H H Li C H H H Dipole moment: (D: debies) N H H H 1.87 D 9.0 D net 1.87 D Cl C Cl Cl Cl = 0
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FORMAL CHARGES C N H H H O O CH 3 NO 2 (nitromethane) ? C N H H H O O C N H H H O O + _ Formal charge = nb of valence electrons in free atom _ nb of valence electrons in bound atom N: 5 - 4 = +1 O: 6 - 7 = -1 C: 4 - 4 = 0 C 4 - 3 = +1 + C 4 - 5 = -1 _ N 5 - 4 = +1 + N 5 - 6 = -1 _ C N N H H C: 4 - 4 = 0 N: 5 - 4 = +1 N: 5 - 6 = -1 + _
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RESONANCE FORMS H 3 C N O O H 3 C N O O + + _ _ N O 130 pm N O 116 pm 116 pm N O Two resonance forms C C C C C C H H H H H H C C C C C C H H H H H H Benzene electrostatic potential map bond density surface + Individual resonance forms are imaginary not real. The real structure is a resonance hybrid of the 2 individual forms and has characteristics of both.
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