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Slides3 - FUNCTIONAL GROUPS A functional group is a group...

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FUNCTIONAL GROUPS A functional group is a group of atoms within a molecule that has a characteristic chemical behavior . The chemistry of every organic molecule, regardless of size and complexity, is determined by the functional groups it contains. H C H C H H Ethylene HO Cholesterol Alkene C C Alkyne Arene C X X: F, Cl, Br, I Alkyl halide C O H Alcohol C O C Ether C S H Thiol C N Amine C O Carbonyl C C O C Ketone C C O H Aldehyde C C O OH Carboxylic acid C C O O Ester C C C O N Amide
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ALKANES (SATURATED HYDROCARBONS) Only C-C and C-H single bonds General formula: C n H 2n+2 Straight-chain or normal alkanes Branched-chain alkanes CH 4 meth ane H C H H H C 2 H 6 eth ane C C H H H H H H H 3 C CH 3 C 3 H 8 prop ane H 3 C CH 2 CH 3 C 4 H 10 but ane H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 C 5 H 12 pent ane C 6 H 14 hex ane C 7 H 16 hept ane C 8 H 18 oct ane C 9 H 20 non ane C 10 H 22 dec ane
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BRANCHED-CHAIN ALKANES - ISOMERS H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 H 3 C CH CH 3 CH 3 Isomers are compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but differ in the way the atoms are arranged. Constitutional isomers are compounds whose atoms are connected differently.
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