Slides5 - Chapter 5 AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANIC REACTIONS THE 4...

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Chapter 5 AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANIC REACTIONS
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THE 4 KINDS OF ORGANIC REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a chemical change or transformation in which a substance decomposes, combines with other substances, or interchanges constituents with other substances. + Addition reactions occur when two reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms left over. H C H C H H + H Br H C C H Br H H H + Elimination reactions occur when a single reactant splits into two products. H C H C H H + H Br H C C H Br H H H + Substitution reactions occur when two reactants exchange parts to give two new products A + B C D A C B D + H C H H H + Cl Cl H C Cl H H + H Cl + Rearrangement reactions occur when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms to yield an isomeric product. A + B A B B + A A B A B H 3 C CH CH CH 3 H 3 C CH 2 CH CH 2
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HOW ORGANIC REACTIONS OCCUR: REACTION MECHANISM A reaction mechanism described in detail exactly what takes place at each stage of a chemical transformation (which bonds are broken and in what order, which bonds are formed and in what order, and what the relative rates of the steps are). + Homolytic bond breaking (one electron stays with each fragment). A B A B B + A Radical reactions + Heterolytic bond breaking (two electrons stay with one fragment). A B A B B + A Polar or ionic reactions + Homogenic bond making (one electron donated by each fragment) + Heterogenic bond making (two electrons donated by one fragment) B + A A B B + A A B
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RADICAL REACTIONS AND HOW THEY OCCUR Radicals are highly reactive species because they contain an atom with an
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Slides5 - Chapter 5 AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANIC REACTIONS THE 4...

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