Ch2 - Sociological Research Methods

Ch2 - Sociological Research Methods - Chapter 2...

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Sociological Research Methods Chapter 2
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Theory A body of plausible assertions that scientifically explain a phenomenon
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Hypothesis A prediction that reasonably follows from a theory
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Research The process of carefully observing reality to assess the validity of a theory and evaluating evidence of hypotheses.
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Ethical Considerations Researchers must respect their subjects’ rights to: Safety Privacy Confidentiality Informed consent
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Research Cycle
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Reliability The degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results. Validity The degree to which a measure actually accurately measures what it is intended to measure.
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Variables Variables and Constants A variable is something that changes or varies A constant does not change What is the constant and what is  the variable in this picture?
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Nominal and Operational Definitions Nominal: expresses the essence of an idea in words Operational: expresses the essence of an idea in terms of measurement Variables How would we operationalize the  definition of George Mason  student?
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Independent Variable (IV) The presumed cause in a cause and effect relationship. Dependent Variable (DV) The presumed effect in a cause and effect relationship. DV IV Variables
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Sampling for Research Sampling Frame- A list of all the people (or other social units, such as organizations) in the population of interest to a researcher.
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Population-The entire group about which the researcher wishes to generalize.
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Sample- the part of the population of research interest that is selected for analysis.
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Control Group- The group that is not exposed to the independent variable in research. Experimental Group- The group that is exposed to the independent variable in research.
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Randomization - in research, choosing a random sample involves assigning individuals to experimental and control groups by chance processes.
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Probability Sample- Sample in which units have a known and nonzero chance of being selected.
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Experiment A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects precisely.
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Steps in Experiment 1. Selection of subjects.  2. Random assignment of subjects to experimental and  control groups. 3.
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course SOCI 101 taught by Professor Rosenblaum during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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Ch2 - Sociological Research Methods - Chapter 2...

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