Microbial GrowthF08

Of sol utes i nsi de outsi de h aloph i le sal t l ovi

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Unformatted text preview: ter l eaves the cel l – Pr eser ve foods because gr owth i s i nhi bi ted • H YPOT ON I C sol uti on: conc. of sol utes i nsi de > outsi de • H ALOPH I LE - sal t l ovi ng – Extr eme hal ophi l e (30% NaCl ) - Ar chaea – Facul tati ve hal ophi l e (2 % NaCl ) Pl a smol ysi s Figure 6.4 B I OCH EM I CAL REQU I REM EN T S • Each or gani sm has i t’s own r ange of nutr i ti onal r equi r ements i n addi ti on to i ts physi cal needs • Can be cl assi fi ed based on car bon sour ce • Can be cl assi fi ed based on amount of oxygen n eeded • Each or gani sm di ffer s i n i t’s r equi r ements for n i tr ogen, sul fur and phosphor ous sour ces or r equi r ements for other tr ace el ements C ARBON SOU RCE • Car bon = str uctur al backbone of al l l i vi ng matter • Chemoheter otr ophs: – C and ener gy der i ved fr om or gani c compounds l i ke pr otei ns, car bohydr ates and l i pi ds • Chemo- & photoautotr ophs: C fr om CO2 – Chemoautotr ophs get thei r ener gy fr om i nor gani c compounds – Photoautotr ophs get thei r ener gy fr om sunl i ght N I T ROGEN • USES – Ami no aci ds/ pr otei ns – Nucl ei c aci ds: DNA, RNA – ATP • SOURCES – Br eakdown of pr otei n contai ni ng mater i al s + – Ammoni um i ons (NH 4 ) and ni tr ate i ons (NO3 ) • N I T ROGEN FI XAT I ON : – Pr ocess wher e an or gani sm i s abl e to N fr om gaseous N 2 – Cyanobacter i a – Rhi zobi um: Symbi oti c r el ati onshi p wi th pl ants SU LFU R • USES – Ami no aci ds: Cystei ne, M ethi oni ne – Vi tami ns: Thi ami ne, Bi oti n • SOURCES – Sul fur contai ni ng compounds such as S-contai ni ng ami no aci ds and i nor gani c sul fate sal ts & some vi tami ns SO4 2– – H 2S P H OSPH OROU S • USES – Nucl ei c aci ds: DNA, RNA – ATP – Phosphol i pi ds • SOURCES 3– PO4 T r a ce El ements & Or ga ni c Gr owth F a ctor s • ESSENTI AL = can not synthesi ze ther efor e M UST B E SUPPL I ED • TRACE EL EM ENTS – Essenti al cofactor s/ coenzymes – K, Fe, Cu, M b, Zn • • • • Vi tami ns Ami no aci ds Pur i nes Pyr i mi di nes O XYGEN • USEFUL : aer obi c r espi r ati on fi nal e- acceptor • H ARM FUL : str ong oxi di zer • OBLI GAT E AEROBES - r equi r e O2 t o l i ve – Use O2 as fi nal el ectr on acceptor – Contai n enzymes that detoxi fy excess mol ecul ar oxygen • FACU LT AT I VE AEROBES - can use but does not r equi r e O2 • OBLI GAT E AN AEROBE...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course BIOL 246 taught by Professor Kocache during the Spring '10 term at George Mason.

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