Microbial MetabolismS10

Microbial MetabolismS10 - Microbial Metabolism Chapter 5...

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Microbial Metabolism Chapter 5
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Microbial Metabolism Study the complex biochemical reactions of the simplest  microbes Many of these biochemical rxs. are unique to bacteria, showing  the diversity of this group -  can live on cellulose, -  on petroleum -  can recycle elements -  or can live on inorganic food such as CO2, S, iron, H2S  etc….
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WHY STUDY METABOLISM? Continuance of life depends upon metabolism Energy production is required for motility, nutrient transport,  reproduction Why microbial metabolism? Easier to study because simpler Discover unique pathways Utilize in genetic engineering
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METABOLISM CATABOLISM : reactions that release energy/heat Usually via breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules Use H2O to break chemical bonds, hydrolytic ANABOLISM : reactions that require energy Usually building of polymers Anabolic or biosynthetic Use dehydration synthesis, take away H2O, to join bonds Metabolism = Catabolism + Anabolism
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Figure 5.1 Role of ATP in Coupling Reactions
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ENZYMES 1. CATALYSTS Most are protein molecules that catalyze reactions The enzymes DO NOT CHANGE Increase rate of a reaction (formation/break down of chemical  bonds by decrease the amount of energy required by decreasing the  ACTIVATION ENERGY ACTIVATION ENERGY  = amount of collision energy  required to start a reaction 2. SPECIFIC Each acts on a specific substance   SUBSTRATE 3. 3-D SHAPE is UNIQUE
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Figure 5.2 Energy Requirements of a Chemical Reaction
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ENZYME COMPONENTS HOLOENZYME = APOENZYME + COFACTOR Apoenzyme = protein component Cofactor/coenzyme = non-protein component Many enzymes associate transiently with other molecules called  coenzymes COENZYMES   May be metal ion, iron, zinc or a complex organic molecule “Carrier” molecules: atoms/electrons to and from the substrate NAD+ carries electrons ATP carries phosphate groups (high energy) RIBOZYMES – unique type of RNA Work like protein enzymes but substrate is RNA
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Figure 5.3 Components of a Holoenzyme
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SUBSTRATES Molecules, compounds that are acted upon by an enzyme Each enzyme has a SPECIFIC SUBSTRATE or set of  substrates Each substrate and enzyme has a unique 3-D structure Fit together in “LOCK & KEY” fit Substrate binds into the ACTIVE SITE of the enzyme
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E + S -----------> E + P End result of enzyme-substrate reaction = PRODUCT Enzymatic reactions often occur in steps 1. E + S -------> [ES] 2. [ES] ---------> EP 3. EP -----------> E + P ENZYME IS RECOVERED INTACT!  Goes on to the next substrate molecule
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Figure 5.4a The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action
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Figure 5.4b The Mechanism of Enzymatic Action
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INFLUENTIAL FACTORS Temperature
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Microbial MetabolismS10 - Microbial Metabolism Chapter 5...

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