Ch 8- microbial genetics

Ch 8- microbial genetics - MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8...

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MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8
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GENETICS = Study of hereditary Includes the study of the genes Gene replication Gene products (proteins, rRNA, tRNA) Traits derived from expressed genes GENOME = sum of the cell’s genetic material It consists of all of the chromosome(s) of a cell and plasmids Genomics: is the sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes GENOTYPE = genetic makeup of cell/organism PHENOTYPE = actual traits due to the expression of the genotype (the expression of the genes)
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CHROMOSOMES Physical structure that carries the hereditary information Genes are made from DNA with A, T, C, G. Double-stranded, helical DNA Acts as a template to make RNA Prokaryotes : one circular chromosome May also contain a plasmid Eukaryotes : more than one, linear chromosome
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GENES E. coli - 1 chromosome Approximately 4,000 genes DNA = 1 mm long (or 1000 μ m) Cell = 1 μ m long Human cell - 23 pairs of chromosomes Approximately 25,000 genes Each chromosome = 50 mm long Chromatin: DNA + proteins
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DNA STRUCTURE DNA is made up of nucleotides Nitrogenous base + pentose + phosphate Sugar-phosphate backbone Hydrogen bonds from between A : T and C : G Two strands are complementary TRANSCRIPTION : DNA ----> mRNA RNA = A : U and C : G TRANSLATION : mRNA ----> protein
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Figure 8.2 The Flow of Genetic Information
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Figure 8.3b DNA Polymer of nucleotides: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine Double helix associated with proteins "Backbone" is deoxyribose- phosphate Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG Strands are antiparallel
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Figure 8.3a Semiconservative Replication
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Figure 8.4 DNA Synthesis
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DNA REPLICATION: Overview Set of enzymes working in a specific sequence Process is very accurate Each parental strand acts as a template for the new “daughter” strand 2 daughter strands produced SEMI-CONSERVATIVE All DNA is synthesized in a directed manner ALWAYS from the 5’ towards the 3’ end Begins at the ORGIN of REPLICATION Bi-directional - all the way around ----> 2 circular DNA molecules
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DNA REPLICATION: Overview Several enzymes work together in a sequential manner DNA polymerase is the main enzyme used for the elongation of the new strands at the replication fork DNA polymerase moves in 3’ to 5’ has a proofreading capability Leading strand is replicated in a continuous manner Lagging strand is replicated non continuously creating small Okazaki fragments that are joined by DNA ligase
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Figure 8.5 DNA Synthesis
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Figure 8.6 Replication of Bacterial DNA
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Figure 8.6b
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THE DOGMA: DNA RNA PROTEIN REPLICATION: DNA ---> DNA Occurs before cell divides TRANSCRIPTION: DNA ---> RNA TRANSLATION: mRNA ---> PROTEIN
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course BIOL 246 taught by Professor Kocache during the Spring '10 term at George Mason.

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Ch 8- microbial genetics - MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8...

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