chapter 44 - Water and ion regulation: Osmolarity: solute...

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Water and ion regulation: Osmolarity: solute concentration; physiological system measured milliosmoles (m Osm); e.g. – vertebrate blood ~ 290 and sea water ~ 1000 Tonicity: effect on cell swelling; isotonic: no change; hypotonic: swells; hypertonic: shrinks Osmoregulations: body fluids different from environment Osmoconformer: body fluid is equal to environment conformer Stenohaline: tolerate narrow range osmolarity Euryhaline: tolerate wide range osmolarity Human is an osmoregulator actively using energy to regulate, 5-10% in kidney of their metabolic; jellyfish is osmoconformer do not participate in regulation Are related to nitrogenous waste; greater than 50% of nitrogen is excreted in the following 3 forms and also tells us that what kind of organism are they; amino groups create problems if nothing has been done: Ammonia: very toxic, low levels of NH 3 ; in fish; organism is referred to as ammoniotelic Urea: mammals, most amphibians, sharks, some bony fishes; organism are called ureotelic; 100 times less toxic than ammonia; contains two nitrogen; synthesize this molecule; is worth it when its water limited Uric acid: birds, insects, reptiles, land snails; organism are called uricotelic; no water
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course BIOL 303 taught by Professor Birchard during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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chapter 44 - Water and ion regulation: Osmolarity: solute...

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