ecology test 3 study guide

ecology test 3 study guide - Ecology Exam 3 Competition-...

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Ecology Exam 3 Competition- species interactions competition- any use of defense of a resource by one individual that reduces the availability of that resource to other individuals competition leads to a decrease in carrying capacity no competition= highest population density intraspecific= next low interspecific= next high interspecific= lowest population density and carrying capacity competition may be interspecific or intraspecific interspecific - between different species i ntraspecific - within the same species consumer-resource interactions, regulates population growth in a density- dependent manner competition should be more intense between closely related species distantly related organisms also use many of the same resources (seal and penguin populations have increased because the population of whales has decreased who is a major competitor) consumer-resource interactions (predator-prey, herbivore-plant, parasite-host) + - competition - - mutualism + + commensalism + 0 amensalism - 0 Understand competitive exclusion predators can drive prey locally extinct habitat structure matters migration matters eventually a species will win out when competing for one niche two species cannot coexist on a single resource that is scarce (limiting) relative to the demand for it examples of competitive exclusion introductions of biological pest controls provide evidence for competitive exclusion among species using limiting resource (parasitoid wasps to control scale insects on cit- rus cycles, interspecific) paramecium- when grown separately both species thrived but when grown together one species died out define and know examples of resources resources - substances required for maintenance, growth and reproduction a resource is consumed (more then just eating) and therefore reduced consumer used it for its own maintenance and growth when resource availability is reduced then consumer population growth is re- duced
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temperature is not a resource nonrenewable- occur in fixed quantities habitat space- replenished when the organisms is removed refuges or safe spots renewable - are continuously regenerated, some outside the system beyond the influ- ence of consumers (sunlight) and some within ecological system (predator-prey) food soil nutrients sunlight rain births in prey population- provide food decomposition of organic detritus - provide nutrients limiting- a resource whose available quantity cannot meet a population’s requirement for it if add more of a limiting resource, then the population will increase in size since K (carrying capacity) has changed however, now a different and second resource may now be limiting the popula- tion’s size synergistic- the combination of a resource is more effective than each resource alone (at the most intense light, combined nitrogen and phosphorus promoted
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 301 taught by Professor Friedman during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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ecology test 3 study guide - Ecology Exam 3 Competition-...

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