chap 5, 7,8 study guide

chap 5, 7,8 study guide - Chapter 5 Experimental and...

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Chapter 5 – Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs Introduction Experiments involve o 1. Taking action o 2. Observing the consequences of that action Social scientific researchers typically select a group of subjects, do something to them, and observe the effect of what was done. Experimentation is especially appropriate for hypothesis testing and evaluation The Classical Experiment Variables, time order, measures, and groups are the central features of the classical experiment. Experiment – “a systematic attempt to test a causal hypothesis about the effect of variations in one factor (the independent variable) on another (dependent)… The defining feature of an experiment lies in the control of the independent variable by the experimenter.” Classical experiment – The most conventional type of experiment in the natural and the social sciences involves 3 major pairs of components: o 1 . Independent and dependent variables o 2 . Pretesting and post testing o 3 . Experimental and control groups Independent and Dependent variables an experiment examines the effect of an independent variable and a dependent variable typically the independent variable takes the form of an experimental stimulus that is either present or absent – that is, have two attributes. Ex. How often subjects used alcohol is the dependent variable and exposure to a video about alcohol’s effects in the independent variable Both independent and dependent variables be operationally defined for the purposes of experimentation.
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Pretesting and posting Subjects are measured on a dependent variable (pretested), exposed to a stimulus that represents an independent variable, and then re-measured on the dependent variable (post tested). Differences noted between the first and second measurements on the dependent variable are then attributed to the influence of the independent variable. The subjects might respond differently to the questionnaires the second time, even if their level of drinking remained unchanged. By the time of the second measurement, however, they might have figured out the purpose of the experiment, become sensitized to the questions about during and changed their answers. The very act of studying something may change it. . Experimental and control groups Control group – the traditional way to offset the effects of the experiment itself is to use a control group. (Stimulus has not been administered) Experimental group – stimulus has been administered if participation in the experiment leads the subjects to report less alcohol use, the should occur in both the experimental and the control groups. The overall level of drinking exhibited by the control group decreases
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2011 for the course CRIMINOLOG 202 taught by Professor Meade during the Summer '10 term at South Carolina.

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chap 5, 7,8 study guide - Chapter 5 Experimental and...

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