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phys documents (dragged) 34

phys documents (dragged) 34 - 28 Physics Formulary by ir...

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28 Physics Formulary by ir. J.C.A. Wevers The dispersion of a prism is defined by: D = d δ d λ = d δ dn dn d λ where the first factor depends on the shape and the second on the composition of the prism. For the first factor follows: d δ dn = 2 sin( 1 2 α ) cos( 1 2 ( δ min + α )) For visible light usually holds dn/d λ < 0 : shorter wavelengths are stronger bent than longer. The refractive index in this area can usually be approximated by Cauchy’s formula. 6.8 Diffraction Fraunhofer diffraction occurs far away from the source(s). The Fraunhofer diffraction of light passing through multiple slits is described by: I ( θ ) I 0 = sin( u ) u 2 · sin( Nv ) sin( v ) 2 where u = π b sin( θ ) / λ , v = π d sin( θ ) / λ . N is the number of slits, b the width of a slit and d the distance between the slits. The maxima in intensity are given by d sin( θ ) = k λ . The diffraction through a spherical aperture with radius a is described by: I ( θ ) I 0 = J 1 ( ka sin( θ )) ka sin( θ ) 2 The diffraction pattern of a rectangular aperture at distance R with length a in the x
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