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phys documents (dragged) 56 - 50 Physics Formulary by ir...

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50 Physics Formulary by ir. J.C.A. Wevers 1. L - S coupling: for small atoms the electrostatic interaction is dominant and the state can be char- acterized by L, S, J, m J . J {| L - S | ,...,L + S - 1 ,L + S } and m J { - J, . .., J - 1 ,J } . The spectroscopic notation for this interaction is: 2 S +1 L J . 2 S +1 is the multiplicity of a multiplet. 2. j - j coupling: for larger atoms the electrostatic interaction is smaller than the L i · s i interaction of an electron. The state is characterized by j i ...j n ,J,m J where only the j i of the not completely Flled subshells are to be taken into account. The energy difference for larger atoms when placed in a magnetic Feld is: Δ E = B m J B where g is the Land´e factor. ±or a transition between two singlet states the line splits in 3 parts, for Δ m J = - 1 , 0+1 . This results in the normal Zeeman effect. At higher S the line splits up in more parts: the anomalous Zeeman effect. Interaction with the spin of the nucleus gives the hyperFne structure.
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