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Unformatted text preview: equilibrium: a state with zero current has a lower energy. Flux quantization prevents transitions between these states. Flux quantization is related to the existence of a coherent manyparticle wavefunction. A ux quantum is the equivalent of about 10 4 electrons. So if the ux has to change with one ux quantum there has to occur a transition of many electrons, which is very improbable, or the system must go through intermediary states where the ux is not quantized so they have a higher energy. This is also very improbable. Some useful mathematical relations are: xdx e ax + 1 = 2 12 a 2 ,  x 2 dx (e x + 1) 2 = 2 3 , x 3 dx e x + 1 = 4 15 And, when n =0 (1) n = 1 2 follows: sin( px ) dx = cos( px ) dx = 1 p ....
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course PHYSICS 208 taught by Professor Ye during the Spring '10 term at Blinn College.
 Spring '10
 Ye
 Current

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