2.Distillation - Lab#2 ChenZhou(4857694 Partner:HaotianWu...

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Lab # 2 Simple and Fractional Distillation Chen Zhou (4857694) Partner: Haotian Wu Demonstrator: Craig Mckay January 23 th , 2008 Purpose: 1) To purify a pure liquid 2-propanol using simple distillation. 2) To separate 50:50 mixture of 2-propanol and 1-butanol using simple distillation. 3) To   separate   50:50   mixture   of   2-propanol   and   1-butanol   using   fractional  distillation. 4) To   compare   the   result   of   simple   and   fractional   distillations   by   plotting   a  temperature vs. volume graph. Introduction: When separating two or more compounds with different boiling points, distillation  is   often   used.   Distillation   is   the   process   where   liquids   are   vaporized,   and   then  condensed  and  collected.   In  distillation,   evaporation  is  used  to  remove  one   more  components of a solution, allowing the components to escape as vapours. Reflux is  used to maintain a specific temperature in a solution by returning the condensate to the  original flask.  For pure liquids, its boiling point is defined as the temperature at which the  vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure applied to the solution (often 
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atmospheric pressure). In distillation, as a liquid is heated, it vaporizes and enters the  condenser. The condenser is cooled by a slow water flow through its water jacket. The  condensed liquid is then collected into the receiving flask. The component with the  lowest boiling point will be removed first, and the distillate that is collected first would be  rich in that component. As distillation proceeds, components with higher boiling point  would begin vaporizing, and they too will condense and be collected. By changing the  receiving flask, one obtains several fractions, each containing a different mix of the  components of the original sample.  Simple distillation is the most effective when the starting liquid contains mainly  one component, or if the difference in boiling point between two components is greater  than 100°C. For liquids with multiple components and large difference in boiling points,  fractional distillation is used.  The fractional distillation has on extra apparatus, the fractional column. The  fractional column allows condensation to take place by providing more surface area with  packing, an inert material such as metal sponge. As vapour rises in the fractional  column and condenses on the packing, heat from the rising vapour will allow the lower  boiling point component to be vaporized again. The higher boiling point component  would condense and drip back into the distilling flask. The condensation-vaporization 
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course CHEM 1321 taught by Professor Rashmi during the Spring '10 term at Carleton CA.

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2.Distillation - Lab#2 ChenZhou(4857694 Partner:HaotianWu...

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