L07HybMO145s10

L07HybMO145s10 - Lecture 7, Spring 2010 ENGR 145: Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 7, Spring 2010 ENGR 145: Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve Univeristy Lecture 7: Molecular Orbitals & Hybridization Reading assignment: skim OGC Ch. 6 Learning objectives: Qualitatively know the characteristics of molecular orbitals in simple molecules Bonding vs. antibonding states Energy levels Spatial distribution Be able to describe the orientation of sp , sp 2 , and sp 3 hybrid orbitals , and give examples of each in compounds 1 ENGR 145: Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve Univeristy Molecular Orbitals vs. Hybridization Molecular orbitals (MO): linear combinations of atomic wave functions Mixing of orbitals from separate atoms The orbitals that mix can be the same (e.g. H1 s with H1 s in H 2 ) or different (e.g. H1 s and F2 p in HF) Bands in solids: the MO concept extended to millions of atoms in a crystal Within an atom, orbitals can mix in a different way hybridization: Mixing of different types of orbitals within the same atom e.g. , mixing of (lled) 2 s and (empty) 2 p orbitals in Be ( Z = 4; 1 s 2 2 s 2 ) 1 s 2 |2 s 2 { } 1 s 2 |2 s 1 2 p 1 { } 1 s 2 |2 sp ( ) 2 { } 2 Lecture 7, Spring 2010 ENGR 145: Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve Univeristy Molecular Orbitals (OGC 6.2) Molecular orbitals in H 2 + (a 1-electron species) Dashed lines: LCAO approximation. Solid lines: exact results. OGC Figure 6.8 antibonding state raised in energy (less stable); no minimum (lowest energy at infinite separation); denoted by an asterisk (*) bonding state lowered in energy (more stable) 3 Lecture 7, Spring 2010 ENGR 145: Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve Univeristy Molecular Orbitals:...
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L07HybMO145s10 - Lecture 7, Spring 2010 ENGR 145: Chemistry...

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