L19BioMatls145s10

L19BioMatls145s10 - Lecture 19 spring 2010 ENGR 145...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Reading assignment : OGC §23.4 Learning objectives: • Understand that biological macromolecules are made up of smaller molecular building blocks • Complex carbohydrates from monosaccharides • Proteins from Ћ-amino acids • Nucleic acids from nucleotides • Recognize some structure-property relationships exhibited by saccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, e.g.: • Starch vs. cellulose • Fibrous vs. globular proteins • Role of DNA in sequencing of amino acids in proteins Lecture 19: The Chemistry of Biological Materials 1 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Monosaccharides [OGC §23.4] • Carbohydrates — “hydrates of carbon” — C n (H 2 O) m • Monosaccharides — C n H 2 n O n e.g. glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 OGC Figure 23.14 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Monosaccharides [OGC §23.4] • Carbohydrates — “hydrates of carbon” — C n (H 2 O) m • Monosaccharides — C n H 2 n O n e.g. glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 OGC Figure 23.14 2 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Another monosaccharide isomer of C 6 H 12 O 6 : fructose • Both glucose and fructose exhibit dynamic equilibrium between an open chain form and two ring forms OGC Fig 23.15 Monosaccharides [OGC §23.4] 3 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Comparison of chain forms: • glucose — aldehyde & alcohol groups OGC Figures 23.14 and 23.15 • fructose — ketone & alcohol groups In many biomolecules, small differences in structure can lead to large differences in function Monosaccharides [OGC §23.4] 4 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Disaccharides: condensation products of two monosaccharides • Lactose — found in milk Disaccharides [OGC §23.4] OGC Fig 24.11 5 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Disaccharides: condensation products of two monosaccharides • Lactose — found in milk • Sucrose — found in sugar cane; table sugar OGC Fig 24.11 Disaccharides [OGC §23.4] 6 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Polysaccharides – condensation polymers of monosaccharides • Starch • Polymer of α-D-glucose • Digestible by humans, animals OGC Fig 23.17 Polysaccharides [OGC §23.4] 7 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University • Polysaccharides – condensation polymers of monosaccharides • Starch • Polymer of α-D-glucose • Digestible by humans, animals • Cellulose • Polymer of β-D-glucose • Digestible by bacteria in goats, cows, termites — but not humans • Structural Fber in plants paper, linen, cotton • ¡or both:...
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L19BioMatls145s10 - Lecture 19 spring 2010 ENGR 145...

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