L19BioMatls145s10

L19BioMatls145s10 - Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145,...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Reading assignment : OGC 23.4 Learning objectives: Understand that biological macromolecules are made up of smaller molecular building blocks Complex carbohydrates from monosaccharides Proteins from -amino acids Nucleic acids from nucleotides Recognize some structure-property relationships exhibited by saccharides, proteins and nucleic acids, e.g.: Starch vs. cellulose Fibrous vs. globular proteins Role of DNA in sequencing of amino acids in proteins Lecture 19: The Chemistry of Biological Materials 1 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Monosaccharides [OGC 23.4] Carbohydrates hydrates of carbon C n (H 2 O) m Monosaccharides C n H 2 n O n e.g. glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 OGC Figure 23.14 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Monosaccharides [OGC 23.4] Carbohydrates hydrates of carbon C n (H 2 O) m Monosaccharides C n H 2 n O n e.g. glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 OGC Figure 23.14 2 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Another monosaccharide isomer of C 6 H 12 O 6 : fructose Both glucose and fructose exhibit dynamic equilibrium between an open chain form and two ring forms OGC Fig 23.15 Monosaccharides [OGC 23.4] 3 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Comparison of chain forms: glucose aldehyde & alcohol groups OGC Figures 23.14 and 23.15 fructose ketone & alcohol groups In many biomolecules, small differences in structure can lead to large differences in function Monosaccharides [OGC 23.4] 4 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Disaccharides: condensation products of two monosaccharides Lactose found in milk Disaccharides [OGC 23.4] OGC Fig 24.11 5 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Disaccharides: condensation products of two monosaccharides Lactose found in milk Sucrose found in sugar cane; table sugar OGC Fig 24.11 Disaccharides [OGC 23.4] 6 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Polysaccharides condensation polymers of monosaccharides Starch Polymer of -D-glucose Digestible by humans, animals OGC Fig 23.17 Polysaccharides [OGC 23.4] 7 Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Polysaccharides condensation polymers of monosaccharides Starch Polymer of -D-glucose Digestible by humans, animals Cellulose Polymer of -D-glucose Digestible by bacteria in goats, cows, termites but not humans Structural Fber in plants paper, linen, cotton or both:...
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L19BioMatls145s10 - Lecture 19, spring 2010 ENGR 145,...

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