CHEM2OA3Fall2010Chapter6Annotated1pp

CHEM2OA3Fall2010Chapter6Annotated1pp - Chapter 6 Ionic...

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Chapter 6 Ionic Reactions- Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides 1
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Polarity Alkyl halides (C sp 3 hybridized bound to a halogen) are typically polarized towards the halogen, making the carbon atom it is attached to electron deficient (δ+) Carbon-halogen bonds become less polar, but longer and weaker going down the periodic table 2
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Naming Vinyl group is CH 2 =CH- Vinylic halides are halides bound to an sp 2 carbon atom 3
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Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions A nucleophile replaces a leaving group (bound to an electrophile) Nucleophilic substitution often occurs with the leaving group as a halogen (but this is not always the case!) 4
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Nucleophiles Nucleophile (positive loving): Reagents which seek a positive center, have a lone pair of electrons which can form a bond Often attack electrophiles in chemical reactions What makes a GOOD nucleophile? Lone pair of electrons (usually charged), but is still quite reactive and capable of making a stable new bond Isn’t too reactive, this will often lead it to act like a base instead of a Nucleophile 5
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Examples 6
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Leaving Groups Leaving Group: A group which is capable of accepting an electron pair (by heterolytic bond cleavage) and leaving hat makes a OOD aving Group? What makes a GOOD Leaving Group? Easily accept a pair of electrons and leave on it’s own as a STABLE
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CHEM2OA3Fall2010Chapter6Annotated1pp - Chapter 6 Ionic...

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