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Unformatted text preview: Number Thursday, October 7th 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 write your elapsed time in seconds, and turn over the first sheet Thursday, October 7, 2010 write your elapsed time in seconds, and turn over the second sheet Thursday, October 7, 2010 Phrenology: a dead-end 15 Telencephalon: Neocortex 517 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Phrenology: a dead-end 15 Telencephalon: Neocortex 517 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Today’s agenda 1.split-brain studies as evidence for a number sense 2. latency as a window into the number sense Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 I discovered that case W.J. could no longer ! verbally describe (from his left hemisphere) stimuli presented to his freshly disconnected right hemisphere. E S S AY PERSPECTIV Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong Thursday, October 7, 2010 D uring my senior year College I tried to study Van Herren’s original patients. I experiments in an effort to r of callosal disconnection in for them to go unused on patients. The effort was not l the time I arrived at Caltech then a neurosurgical residen Michael S. Gazzaniga Medical School, had develop and rationale for once aga epilepsy5. However, the surgeries did not lead Abstract | Forty-five years ago, Roger callosal surgery as a reasonab Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6, 653-659 (August 2005) | doi:10.1038/nrn1723 to a reduction in seizures and they stopped Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked controlling otherwise intrac performing the procedure. Thirty years later, on what are now known as the modern He was extremely familiar Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen carried out split-brain studies. These experiments of the Sperry laboratory, an Wada procedure Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 split-brain patient instructions: add 4 to the number you see 3 Thursday, October 7, 2010 split-brain patient instructions: add 4 to the number you see 3 Thursday, October 7, 2010 instructions: add 4 to the number you see 5 Thursday, October 7, 2010 J.S. has no left hemisphere; can compare but not calculate Thursday, October 7, 2010 pg/ml). Suspecting reflex epilepsy, we made an EEG for 70 min while he wrote musical scores while listening t o music. T his procedure induced generalized spike-wave discharges prevalent in the left central region five times. Two weeks later, an EEG was recorded while he made calculations with a Soroban using the right fingers. Within 1 min, similar epileptic discharges were induced and occurred much more frequently than they had while he was writing musical scores. As shown in Fig. 1 , seizure discharges first occurred in the left frontocentral area, followed by generalized spike-wave. Continuing calculation using a Soroban resulted in a frequent epileptic discharge with myoclonic jerks of the right fingers and arm. In other situations, generalized bi- Stimulation requiring finger movement with a relatively low psychological tension, such as calculation using an electronic calculator, copying a figure with the right hand, and the Baum test were applied for a t least 600 s each. No epileptic discharge was induced (Table 1 ). Furthermore, stimulation that required mental activity alone without finger movement such as mental arithmetic o r silent reading was performed for at least 600 s each but without provocation of epileptic discharge (Table 1 ). Valproate (VPA) was administered in a single dose of 400 mg and an effect on epileptic discharges induced by calculation using a Soroban was found (Table 2). With addition of 800 mg VPA daily and prohibition of use of a Soroban and musical activities, the clinical seizures have been completely in- inf parietal F. c 3 4 a I 3 I I B ! I ! c4 L F3 FIG. 1. A: Epileptic discharge in case 1 . 8 : EEG record surrounded by the dotted line in A i s magnified. A small spike-wave discharge Epiiepsia, 3 2(1):3943, 1 991 Raven Press, L td., New Y ork 0 International League Against Epilepsy - ------_______ j F . 4 in F, C preceded the generalized spike, wave discharge. Reflex Epilepsy Induced by Calculation Using a “ Soroban,” a J apanese Traditional Calculator Junji Yamamoto, “ Isao Egawa, t Shinobu Yamamoto, and SAkira Shimizu Urneshin C linic; * Osaka K aisei Hospital; f Department . H ealth Sciences, F aculty of H ealth a nd S port Sciences, f O saka University; and #Department of N europsychiatry, Osaka University Medical School, O saka, J apan Thursday, October 7, 2010 Half a Brain is Enough The Story of Nico Series: Cambridge Studies in Cognitive and Perceptual Development (No. 5) Antonio M. Battro Argentine Academy of Education Thursday, October 7, 2010 different steps. Stage I: Extended temporal lobectomy The first stage consists of an extended anterior temporal lobectomy including resection of the mesial temporal structures and is subdivided into the following steps: Step 1: A cortical incision is made in the T1 gyrus extending to 5 cm from the temporal tip or up to the Vein of Labbe. The T1 gyrus is then excised subpially and this exposes the Cognitive andcistern and the insula.inferior half of the Perceptual Development circular Step 2: A posterior diagonal incision is made from the posterior end of the incision of Step 1 across T2 Half a Brain is Enough The Story of Nico Series: Cambridge Studies in Antonio M. Battro Argentine Academy of Education junction tricle is tip of the matter b ferior as done wi the tissu b. An inci directed (No. visualiz 5) incision up to the Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Today’s agenda 1.split-brain studies as evidence for a number sense 2. latency as a window into the number sense Thursday, October 7, 2010 Moyer & Landauer Nature vol 215 1967 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Moyer & Landauer Nature vol 215 1967 Thursday, October 7, 2010 Learning Arithmetic with a Neural Ne 600 .CI ) E -~ ~ 400 0I , , , , " , , , , I - 82 - 62 - 42 - 22 - 22 22 42 62 82 Difference between Numbers Thursday, October 7, 2010 Figure 7.11 In prep for Thursday... Chapter 7 Learning Arithmetic with a Neural Network : Seven Times Seven Is About Fifty A James . Anderson Editors ' Introdudion , Despite the astounding speedsthat current computershave attained thesemachinesare still remark bly stupid when comparedto some of the capabilitiesof the human brain. Ordinary a abilities, such as reading driving a car, or understanding a spoken phrase far surpassthe , abilities of computers(though the gap has beennarrowing). One observation that makesthis , discrepancysurprising is that the neurons in the brain are rather slow devices operating at m in , speeds easured thousandthsof a second rather than the billionths and even trillionths of . a second for contemporary computers On the other hand, the brain has bi Uions of these . neuronsoperating in paraDel In the past few years many cognitive scientistshave been trying , to get computersto fundion more like the brain by simulating the operations of a network . of interading neurons News articles now often announcenew accomplishmentsof Thursday, October 7, 2010 In prep for Thursday... Chapter 7 Learning Arithmetic with a Neural Network : Seven Times Seven Is About Fifty A James . Anderson Editors ' Introdudion 280 Anderson Magnitude : Low II II II - Thursday, October 7, 2010 Medium I III , II Despite the astounding speedsthat current computershave attained thesemachinesare still remark bly stupid when comparedto some of the capabilitiesof the human brain. Ordinary a IIIII I High abilities, such as reading driving a car, or understanding a spoken phrase far surpassthe , abilities of computers(though the gap has beennarrowing). One observationBarmakesthis Random thatofactivity , discrepancysurprising is that the neurons in the brain are rather slow devices operating at .12 and he simulations "Number" than 7 m in , speeds easured thousandthsof a second ratherFigure the billionthssed in teven trillionths of containstwo . Number representationu . a second for contemporary computers On the other number and one reflecting the Uions of othese , each hand the brain has bi magnitude f the number. Weare . neuronsoperating in paraDel In the past few yearscorrespondingto the number are lined up inbeen ttryinga one dimens , many cognitive scientistshave a row, hat is, The magnitudesegmentis represented location of the active units on b " to get computersto fundion more like the brain by simulating theas a fanciedy imilarity to etwork " operations of a nthe topographic ma s topographic map, which h . of interading neurons News articles now often (announcenew accomplishmentsof cortex figure 7.8). This representationtechniqueis sometimescalled a increasesthe area of activity moves from one end of this regio , ...
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