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ch03.1 - Cellular Basis of Life

ch03.1 - Cellular Basis of Life - 3 Cells and Tissues YOUR...

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Cells and Tissues YOUR GOALS After completing this chapter, you will have a working knowledge of the functions of cells and tissues and will have mastered the objectives listed below. FUNCTION PREVIEW Cells carry out all the chemical activities needed to sustain life. Tissues provide for a division of labor among body cells. OBJECTIVE CHECKLIST PART I: CELLS OVERVIEW OF THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE (pp. 62–63) Name the four elements that make up the bulk of living matter, and list several trace elements. ANATOMY OF A GENERALIZED CELL (pp. 63–72) Define cell, organelle, and inclusion . Identify on a cell model or diagram the three major cell regions (nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane). List the structures of the nucleus, and explain the function of chromatin and nucleoli. Identify the organelles on a cell model or describe them, and discuss the major function of each. CELL PHYSIOLOGY (pp. 72–85) Define selective permeability, diffusion (including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis ), active transport, passive transport, solute pumping, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, bulk-phase endocytosis, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic . >> 3
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PART I: CELLS In the late 1600s, Robert Hooke was looking through a crude microscope at some plant tissue cork. He saw some cubelike structures that re- minded him of the long rows of monk’s rooms (or cells) at the monastery, so he named these structures cells. The living cells that had formed the cork were long since dead. However, the name stuck and is still used to describe the smallest unit, or the building block, of all living things, plants and animals alike. Whatever its form, however it
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