Lecture 1 - 8/20/2010 Course Introduction Tuesday August 24...

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Unformatted text preview: 8/20/2010 Course Introduction Tuesday August 24 th, 2010 Claudia Stanescu, Ph.D., Jennifer Bea, Ph.D., Vinson Lee, M.S. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine The University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona Lecturers Lecturers and preceptors Syllabus Syllabus and lecture slides are all posted D2L 3 Exams - 100 points each Exams Two Two projects – 75 points each 1. Health Profile 2. Group Research Project Point Point Distribution: Exam I Exam II Exam III Group Research Project Health Profile Total 100 points 100 points 100 points 75 points 75 points 450 points You You are responsible for printing out lecture slides before class Read Read the syllabus What W hat is body composition? How How would you measure body composition? Do Do you think one’s body composition reflects the health status of their body? If so, how does it do this? Do Do you think that diet and exercise can influence one’s body composition? If so, which “component(s)” would be affected? Could Could space flight or long-term bed rest affect body longcomposition? How? W hat is body composition? How is body composition measured? How does body composition change with growth? Maturation? How does body composition change with aging in adults? How is body composition related to health? 1 8/20/2010 How How is body composition related to fitness? How How is body composition related to athletic performance? How How is composition related to activities of daily life? Fraility? Fraility? Disability? QOL? How How is body composition related health and to chronic disease? How How is body composition different from mass? Shape? What W hat is physique? Why is it important? What W hat is fat distribution and how is fat distribution measured? How How accurately can body composition (whole body and regional) be measured? How How accurately must body composition be measured? Is Is it possible to change body composition? How? Obesity Obesity (adipose tissue) Osteoporosis Osteoporosis (bone) Sarcopenia Sarcopenia (muscle) Epidemiology…Etiology…Consequences…Costs ?? Coronary Coronary Heart Disease Cardiovascular Cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis) Cerebrovascular Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) NonNon-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes Some Some cancers …Consequences and costs? Is Is fitness or fatness more important to health? Is Is physical activity, fitness, or fatness more important to health? Can Can weight loss improve health? What W hat is optimal weight? Can Can people successfully lose weight? Can Can weight loss be maintained? 2 8/20/2010 Phenotype Physical Activity Fitness Level Nutritional Status Genotype Genotype Genetic x Environment interaction Energy balance Energy balance Energy intake OBESITY Chronic Disease Heart disease Diabetes Cancer Osteoporosis Kcal Energy expenditure Assessment of body composition % fat Fat distribution Lean Mass 1900 1950 2000 Energy Balance (EB) is when Energy Intake (Ei) equals Energy Expenditure (Eo) Interventions: Interventions: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Physical activity/ Non-fitness benefits Outcomes: Improved risk factors: Inflammation Blood pressure Blood lipids Fasting insulin Fasting glucose Physical Activity/ fitness Weight loss Less abdominal obesity Less obesity Fatness Fatness (whole body and distribution)? Muscularity Muscularity (whole body; regional)? Bone Bone mass, density, structure? Hydration? Hydration? Disease reduction: Heart disease Diabetes Osteoporosis Sarcopenia Cancer Bioelectrical Impedance Obesity and obesity comorbidities Underwater Weighing Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) CHD CHD CAD CAD CVD CVD Hypertension/Stroke Hypertension/Stroke Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia Insulin Insulin resistance/Metabolic syndrome/Type II diabetes MRI Osteoporosis Sarcopenia SKINFOLDS Air Plethysmography bone bone fragility/fractures muscle muscle loss/weakness disability disability 3 8/20/2010 Rules and models Changes or Variations in Composition Methodology Rules and models Methods: Direct, destructive - biopsy, chemical analysis Direct, nondestructive – radiation exposure, neutron activation Indirect – properties and models Rules and models Methods: Type 1 Derived from empirical data Type 2 Model-based Rules and models Methods Densitometry Hydrometry Whole body counting IVNA Absorptiometry Ultrasound Computed tomography NMR/MRI Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Infrared Interactance Anthropometry Rules and models Changes: Growth & maturation Illness/chronic disease Secular trends Intervention: nutritional exercise pharmacological surgical 4 8/20/2010 Personal Health Profile Goal: Provide hands on experience in measuring body composition and to obtain information regarding your health status. Group Research Project Working in groups to perform research on topics relevant to body composition culminating in a Powerpoint presentation at the end of the semester Draw a number from the cup Go to the area of the room that corresponds with your number W hen all members are present, introduce yourself to your group mates and exchange contact information. Print your name under your group number on the group list (please print legibly). Anthropometry Anthropometry demonstration Make Make sure you download and print lecture slides before coming to class 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course PSIO 445 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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