SOC 101 EXAM 1 Study Guide.docx - Chapter 1 u2013 The...

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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Perspective and Research- Study guideThese come from the PowerPoints and the E-textYou should be familiar with the following terms and concepts, and be able to apply them toexamples:-The difference between Psychology and SociologyoPsychologyis the scientific study of the mind and behavior, often done in experiments to identify the variableoSociologyis the systematic study of human behavior, group dynamics, social patterns; no lab, collect imperial data-Why Study Sociology?oHelps us assess the truth behind common sense assumptionsoAssesses both the opportunities and limitations of our lives oEmpowers us to actively participate in the social world around us.-Early Thinkers: A Concern with Social Order and StabilityoAugusteComte(founder of sociology) proposed that we observe and classify human activitiesoHerbert Spencer(2ndfounder of sociology) he proposed that societies evolve over time as the fittest people adapt to their environment (Social Darwinism).oKarl Marxtheory was that people should try to change society through revolution.He believed that the engine of human history is class conflict; capitalists and workers.Dominant Groups v. Minority Group relations oEmile Durkheim(often credited as true father of society got sociology recognized as a separate academic discipline and wanted to see “What kept society together– task of sociology (compared suicide rates)Thought of society as an organismObject of study: Social Fact consisting of manners of acting, thinking, and feeling external to the individual, which are invested w/ a coercive power by which they exercise control over himoMax Webertheory was that religion is the key factor is rise of capitalism.-The Beginnings of Sociology in the United StatesoSociology was a predominantly male subject. Racism and Sexism was invisible towhite sociologists.oMost early female sociologists viewed sociology as a path to social reform.oHarriet Martineau was known for translating Comte’s ideas into English.oDu Bois was a sociologist and a journalist who embraced revolutionary Marxism. oJane Adams saw work to help London’s poor. she brought that to the U.S. and co-founded Hull House and American Civil Liberties.
oTalcot Parsons developed abstract models of society that influenced a generation of sociologists.oC. Wright Mills urged American sociologists to concentrate on social reform, developing the concept of the power to elite to illustrate how top leaders of business, politics, and the military were an imminent threat to American freedom.-Macro vs. Micro AnalysisoMacro-Theory:institutional level - a theory aimed at understanding the “big picture” of institutions, whole societies and the interactions/ connections between them Paradigms: structural functionalism, conflict perspectivesoMicro-Theory: small groups, individuals - a theory aimed at understanding the social life at the intimate level of individuals and their interactionsParadigm: Symbolic interactionism-

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