physioogy%20final%2007%20with%20key

physioogy%20final%2007%20with%20key - SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY...

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Unformatted text preview: SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY Drs. S. Auerbach & H. John-Alder Final Examination December 14, 2007 NAME:_____________________________ Student ID No._______________________ CHOOSE ONLY THE ONE BEST ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. 1) n its journey from the atmosphere to the mitochondria, where I does oxygen move by diffusion (not convection)? 1. Atmospheric air to alveoli 2. Alveolar air to pulmonary capillary blood 3. Pulmonary capillary blood to systemic capillary blood 4. Systemic capillary blood to interstitial fluid 5. Interstitial fluid to intracellular fluid A) and 2 only 1 B) , 2, and 3 only 1 C) and 5 only 3 D) , 4, and 5 only 2 E) , 3, and 5 only 1 2) he primary site of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid T occurs in the ________. A) enules v B) apillaries c C) rteries a D) eins v E) rterioles a 3) _______ is responsible for the rapid depolarization phase of an _ action potential within the cardiac pacemaker cells. A) decrease in PK A B) n increase in PK A C) n increase in PCa A D) n increase in PNa A E) decrease in PNa A 4) he elastic nature of the largest artery’s walls allows them to act T as a ________, maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole. A) on-distensible structure n B) esistor r C) ressure reservoir p D) olume reservoir v E) on-compliant structure n 5) n the circulatory system, the largest pressure drop occurs across I ________. A) enules v B) apillaries c C) rterioles a D) rteries a E) eins v 6) lood flow velocity is greatest in the _____ and slowest in the B _____. A) apillaries : arteries c B) rteries : veins a C) rterioles : veins a D) rteries : capillaries a E) eins : arteries v 7) measure of the inflationary force across the lungs is the A ________. A) ntra-alveolar pressure i B) ntrapleural pressure i C) tmospheric pressure a D) ranspulmonary pressure t E) ifference between intra-alveolar pressure and d atmospheric pressure 8) he volume of air that reaches the respiratory zone each minute T is referred to as ________. A) idal volume t B) inute ventilation m C) lveolar ventilation a D) ulmonary ventilation p E) otal lung capacity t 9) f oxygen is consumed by the metabolic requirements of all cells I at a rate of 300 mL per minute, then how much oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries? A) ess than 300 mL per minute l B) epends on where the oxygen is being utilized d C) ore than 300 mL per minute m D) 00 mL per minute 3 E) epends on whether or not carbon dioxide is being d produced at the same rate 10) hich of the following does NOT contribute to the rapid W movement of gases into and out of the blood within the lungs? A) artial pressure gradient across the respiratory membrane P B) apid blood flow r C) ermeability of the respiratory membrane p D) hin respiratory membrane t E) arge surface area for gas exchange l 11) s the air is saturated with water vapor (humidified) upon entry A into the conducting pathway, there will be ________. A) selective decrease in the partial pressure of nitrogen a B) n increase in the partial pressure of the remaining gases a C) decrease in the partial pressure of the remaining gases a D) o change in the partial pressure of the remaining gases n E) selective increase in the partial pressure of nitrogen a 12) t sea level, what is the normal partial pressure of carbon A dioxide in alveolar air? A) 0 mm Hg 4 B) 6 mm Hg 4 C) 1 mm Hg 2 D) 00 mm Hg 1 E) 60 mm Hg 1 13) n increase in alveolar ventilation to match the demands of A increased metabolic activity in the cells is called ________. A) ypopnea h B) yperventilation h C) ypoventilation h D) yperpnea h E) yspnea d 14) n the pulmonary arteries, the partial pressure of oxygen is I approximately ________, and hemoglobin is approximately ________ saturated with oxygen. A) 00 mm Hg : 98% 1 B) 0 mm Hg : 75% 4 C) 0 mm Hg : 80% 6 D) 0 mm Hg : 90% 8 E) 5 mm Hg : 50% 2 15) majority of the CO2 that is transported in the blood is present A ________. A) ound to carbonic anhydrase b B) s bicarbonate (HCO3-) in plasma a C) s bicarbonate (HCO3-) in RBCs a D) issolved in plasma d E) ound to hemoglobin b 16) ithin an erythrocyte, the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate is W prevented from reaching equilibrium by the ________. A) emperature of the body t B) fflux of bicarbonate from the erythrocyte via the chloride e shift C) resence of oxygen p D) ctivity of carbonic anhydrase a E) resence of hydrogen ions p 17) he Haldane effect describes the increase in the affinity of T hemoglobin for CO2 in the presence of a lowered ________. A) H p B) emperature t C) D) oncentration of bicarbonate (HCO3-) c E) 18) hich of the following is NOT one of the primary functions of W the kidneys? A) egulation of plasma ionic concentrations r B) egulation of plasma volume r C) egulation of plasma temperature r D) egulation of plasma hydrogen ion concentration r E) egulation of plasma osmolarity r 19) espite being less than 1% of body weight, the kidneys receive D ________ of resting cardiac output. A) % 5 B) 5% 1 C) 5% 3 D) 0% 2 E) % 1 20) he ________ is the functional unit of the kidney. T A) enal corpuscle r B) ephron n C) roximal tubule p D) oop of Henle l E) lomerulus g 21) he sum of Starlingʹs forces within the renal corpuscle is termed T ________. A) lomerular filtration rate g B) ubular load t C) lomerular filtration pressure g D) lomerular filtration volume g E) iltration fraction f 22) n tubuloglomerular feedback, an increase in glomerular I filtration rate would increase the ________, thereby stimulating the release of a paracrine factor from the macula densa that would ________. A) fferent arteriolar pressure : increase filtrate flow a B) low of tubular fluid : dilate the afferent arteriole f C) low of tubular fluid : constrict the afferent arteriole f D) low of tubular fluid : constrict the efferent arteriole f E) fferent arteriolar pressure : constrict the afferent arteriole a 23) y the time filtrate reaches the loop of Henle, nearly ________ of B the sodium and water has been removed. A) % 1 B) 0% 9 C) 0% 7 D) 0% 5 E) 00% 1 24) ost reabsorption occurs in the ________ and is ________. M A) roximal tubule : not regulated p B) oop of Henle : regulated l C) istal tubule and collecting duct : not regulated d D) istal tubule and collecting duct : regulated d E) roximal tubule : regulated p 25) hat creates the osmotic gradient in the renal medulla? W A) ctive transport of solute out of the proximal tubule a B) pecial transport systems of the loops of Henle of cortical s nephrons C) assive transport of solute out of the distal tubules and p collecting ducts D) pecial transport systems and selective permeability of the s loops of Henle of juxtamedullary nephrons E) ctive transport of solute out of the distal tubules and a collecting ducts 26) alculate renal clearance of X given the following information: C GFR = 100 mL/min, urine flow rate = 5 mL/min, plasma concentration of X = 10 mg/mL, urine concentration of X = 50 mg/mL. A) 0 mL/min 5 B) 0 mg/min 5 C) 5 mL/min 2 D) 5 mg/min 2 E) 00 mL/min 1 27) hich of the following occurs during micturition? W A) he detrusor muscles relax, muscles of the internal urethral T sphincter contract, and muscles of the external urethral sphincter relax. B) he detrusor muscles contract, muscles of the internal T urethral sphincter relax, and muscles of the external urethral sphincter relax. C) he detrusor muscles contract, muscles of the internal T urethral sphincter contract, and muscles of the external urethral sphincter contract. D) he detrusor muscles relax, muscles of the internal urethral T sphincter relax, and muscles of the external urethral sphincter relax. E) he detrusor muscles relax, muscles of the internal urethral T sphincter contract, and muscles of the external urethral sphincter contract. 28) he thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is ________. T A) ermeable to water only in the presence of specific p hormones B) ermeable to water and contains Na+/K+/Cl- p cotransporters C) mpermeable to water and contains Na+/K+/Cl- i cotransporters D) ermeable to water and responsive to atrial natriuretic p peptide E) mpermeable to water and responsive to aldosterone i 29) t high concentrations of antidiuretic hormone, the extent of A water reabsorption in the collecting ducts is ________, causing urine output to ________. A) ow : decrease l B) naffected : remain unchanged u C) ow : increase l D) igh : increase h E) igh : decrease h 30) hich of the following conditions is NOT responsible for W stimulating the release of renin? A) ncreased glomerular filtration rate i B) ecreased pressure within the afferent arteriole d C) ecreased mean arterial pressure d D) ncrease in sympathetic nerve activity i E) ecrease in sodium and chloride in the distal tubule d 31) he activity of the respiratory system can increase pH by T ________. A) a hypoventilation-induced increase in B) a hypoventilation-induced decrease in C) a hyperventilation-induced increase in D) ncreasing amount of carbonic acid in the blood i E) a hyperventilation-induced decrease in 32) nder severe acidic conditions, the proximal tubules can U produce bicarbonate through the metabolism of ________ . A) lanine a B) lycine g C) ysine l D) lutamine g E) arbon monoxide c 33) hich of the following is NOT a basic process of the W gastrointestinal system? A) iltration f B) bsorption a C) ecretion s D) igestion d E) otility m 34) _______ cells function to secrete hydrogen ions into the lumen _ of the stomach. A) G B) hief C C) arietal P D) eck N E) oblet G 35) o increase the absorptive efficiency of the small intestine, the T surface area of the mucosa is increased by the presence of folds in the wall called ________, and projections of the cell membrane called ________. A) illi : microvillil v B) icrovilli : villi m C) acteals : rugae l D) icrovilli : lacteals m E) ugae : lacteals r 36) he absorption of glucose involves ________ across the apical T membrane and ________ across the basolateral membrane. A) econdary active transport : facilitated diffusion s B) econdary active transport : primary active transport s C) imple diffusion : facilitated diffusion s D) acilitated diffusion: facilitated diffusion f E) econdary active transport : secondary active transport s 37) mulsification aids in the digestion of fats by ________. E A) he ability of bile salts to activate lipases that digest fats t B) ncreasing the number of hydrophobic residues on the i surface of the fat globule C) ncreasing the total surface area of fat particles exposed to i enzymes D) ncreasing the number of fat globules i E) eginning the process of hydrolyzing the triglycerides b within the fat globule 38) nce the digestion products of triglycerides have been absorbed O into the epithelial cells of the small intestines, they ________. A) re reassembled into triglycerides and packaged by the a Golgi apparatus into micelles B) re reassembled into triglycerides and packaged by the a Golgi apparatus into chylomicrons C) re further degraded to glycerol and a free fatty acid, which a are packaged by the Golgi apparatus into chylomicrons D) re reassembled into triglycerides and released into the a blood where they can be incorporated into chylomicrons E) ross the basolateral membrane and enter the circulation c where they will be embedded into a chylomicron 39) astric-phase control of gastrointestinal function refers to its site G of origin: ________. A) he pancreas t B) he colon t C) he intestines t D) he central nervous system t E) he stomach t 40) n response to the presence of food within the duodenum, the I increased release of ________ will primarily stimulate an increase in enzyme secretion from the exocrine pancreas. A) nsulin i B) astrin g C) ecretin s D) lucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide g E) holecystokinin c 41) n response to the presence of food within the duodenum, the I increased release of ________ will primarily stimulate an increase in bicarbonate secretion from the exocrine pancreas. A) astrin g B) holecystokinin c C) ecretin s D) lucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide g E) nsulin i 42) hat is the main hormone that stimulates bile secretion? W A) holecystokinin c B) astrin g C) lucagon g D) nsulin i E) ecretin s 43) ropelling food to the back of the mouth with the tongue P initiates the ________. A) eceptive relaxation r B) hewing reflex c C) eristalsis p D) wallowing reflex s E) olus formation b 44) hich of the following increases gastric motility? W A) istension of the intestines d B) istension of the stomach d C) ncreased fat content in the lumen of the duodenum i D) holecystokinin and secretin c E) ncreased osmolarity of duodenal contents i 45) hich of the following best illustrates the form in which W carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, respectively, are transported in the bloodstream? A) lucose, amino acids, and lipoproteins g B) lycogen, amino acids, and triglycerides g C) isaccharides, amino acids, and lipoproteins d D) lycogen, tripeptides, and fatty acids g E) lucose, dipeptides, and fatty acids g 46) uring the absorptive state, the primary energy source for most D of the body cells is ________. A) atty acids recently absorbed into the bloodstream f B) lucose supplied from glycogen g C) mino acids from proteins a D) lucose recently absorbed into the bloodstream g E) atty acids from triglycerides f 47) he metabolic adjustments that occur in the body during the T switch from postabsorptive to absorptive state are largely triggered by increases in ________ concentration. A) rowth hormone g B) lucagon g C) ortisol c D) nsulin i E) hyroid hormone t 48) nsulin stimulates the uptake of glucose by ________. I A) ncreasing the activity of the sodium-linked glucose i transporter B) ausing the sodium-linked glucose transporter to be c incorporated into the membrane of cells C) ctivating the Na+/K+ pump a D) ausing GLUT-4 to be incorporated into the plasma c membrane of some cells E) ausing GLUT-1 to be incorporated into the membrane of c cells 49) lucagon is secreted from ________ cells of the pancreas and G stimulates ________. A) eta : anabolism b B) lpha : catabolism a C) eta : catabolism b D) lpha : anabolism a E) elta : anabolism d 50) ecretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is stimulated S by ________ released from the ________. A) ntidiuretic hormone : hypothalamus a B) nhibiting hormones : posterior pituitary i C) timulating hormones : posterior pituitary s D) eleasing hormones : hypothalamus r E) xytocin : hypothalamus o 51) hich of the following is a correct example of long-loop W negative feedback? A) ortisol inhibits the release of CRH. C B) H stimulates the release of GHIH. G C) SH stimulates the release of TRH. T D) SH inhibits the release of GnRH. F E) SH inhibits the release of TRH. T 52) hich of the following correctly describes a pathway for W secretion of a hormone under the control of tropic hormones? A) RH stimulates dopamine release, which stimulates P prolactin release. B) RH stimulates ACTH release, which stimulates secretion C of insulin‐like growth factors. C) HRH stimulates GH release, which stimulates secretion of G insulin‐like growth factors. D) nRH stimulates TRH release, which stimulates prolactin G release. E) RH stimulates TSH release, which stimulates testosterone T release. 53) ollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone stimulate F the growth and development of sperm ________. A) ndirectly by binding to Sertoli cells i B) irectly by binding to sperm d C) ndirectly by binding to interstitial cells i D) ndirectly by binding to androgen-binding protein i E) ndirectly by binding to Leydig cells i 54) nhibin is secreted from the ________ and acts to reduce the I secretion of ________. A) eydig cells : follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) L B) nterior pituitary : FSH a C) ypothalamus : luteinizing hormone (LH) h D) ertoli cells : FSH S E) eydig cells : LH L 55) he follicular phase of the ovarian cycle corresponds with what T phase of the uterine cycle? A) enstrual phase only m B) oth menstrual and proliferative phases b C) roliferative phase only p D) oth proliferative and secretory phases b E) ecretory phase only s 56) n the uterine cycle, the proliferative phase is promoted by I ________, whereas the secretory phase is promoted by ________. A) rogesterone : progesterone p B) H : FSH L C) SH : LH F D) strogen : progesterone e E) rogesterone : estrogen p 57) he secretion of estrogen and progesterone by the corpus luteum T is maintained during pregnancy by ________ until the corpus luteum degenerates and the ________ takes over secretion of these hormones. A) CG : endometrium h B) uman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) : placenta h C) CG : fetus h D) H : endometrium L E) uteinizing hormone (LH) : placenta l 58) An anion is found in greater concentration inside the cell than outside. Which of the following statements best describes forces acting on the anion at the resting membrane potential (-70 mV)? A) he chemical force is directed out of the cell and the electrical force is directed T into the cell. B) here is insufficient information to answer this question. T C) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed out of the cell. B D) he chemical force is directed into the cell and the electrical force is directed T out of the cell. E) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed into the cell. B 59) hich of the following statements about glucose cotransport with sodium is true? W A) lucose and sodium both move into the cell. G B) odium moves out of the cell, but the movement of glucose will vary based on S the type of cell. C) lucose moves out of the cell while sodium moves into the cell. G D) lucose and sodium both move out of the cell. G E) lucose moves into the cell while sodium moves out of the cell. G 60) ed blood cells are placed in a storage solution containing 0.1 mole/L urea and 0.1 R mole/L NaCl. Knowing that intracellular fluid is 300 mOsm, this storage solution is _________ and the red blood cells stored in this solution will __________. A) yperosmotic; shrink h B) ypotonic; swell h C) ypotonic; shrink h D) sotonic; neither shrink nor swell i E) ypo-osmotic; shrink h 61) hich of the following correctly lists the components of the central nervous system? W A) rain and spinal cord b B) rain and peripheral nerves b C) pinal cord and peripheral nerves s D) rain, spinal cord, and nerves b E) ympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system s 62) dentify the type of receptor that is responsible for the rapid opening of ion channels I in response to the interaction between a neurotransmitter and its receptor. A) lucocorticoid receptor g B) ipophillic receptor l C) echanotropic receptor m D) hemotropic receptor c E) onotropic receptor i 63) The ________ is involved in the control of large muscle groups that function in posture and balance. A) pinothalamic tract s B) xtrapyramidal tract e C) ntrapyramidal tract i D) yramidal tract p E) halamocortical tract t 64) hich of the following best describes the electrochemical forces acting on sodium W and potassium ions at the resting membrane potential? A) he force on sodium ions is to move out of the cell, and the force on potassium T ions is to move into the cell. B) orces on both sodium and potassium ions are to move into the cell. F C) orces on both sodium and potassium ions are to move out of the cell. F D) he force on sodium ions is to move into the cell, and the force on potassium T ions is to move out of the cell. E) here is no force on either ion to move. T 65) he opening of sodium channels causes a rapid ________ of sodium that ________ T the neuronʹs membrane. A) nflux : depolarizes i B) fflux : hyperpolarizes e C) nflux : hyperpolarizes i D) fflux : depolarizes e E) nflux : repolarizes i 66) n response to light, a decrease in the concentration of cGMP in the cytosol of a I photoreceptor directly causes the ________. A) pening of potassium channels o B) pening of calcium channels o C) losure of potassium channels c D) peining of sodium channels o E) losure of sodium channels c 67) he transduction of sound waves into neural impulses occurs in the ________. T A) ssicles o B) iddle ear m C) ympanic membrane t D) uter ear o E) ochlea c 68) t rest, what is the relative contribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic A nervous systems to the regulation of homeostasis? A) nly the parasympathetic system is active. O B) oth systems are active but the parasympathetic predominates. B C) oth systems are active but the sympathetic predominates. B D) nly the sympathetic system is active. O E) either system is active. N 69) he interaction between actin and myosin that results in the generation of force by a T skeletal muscle cell is called ________. A) xcytosis e B) he crossbridge cycle t C) igor mortis r D) itin myosin complex formation t E) he length tension curve t 70) hich of the following is NOT an accurate description of specific muscle fiber W types? A) ast glycolytic fibers are the largest diameter fibers. F B) ast oxidative fibers have many mitochondria. F C) ast glycolytic fibers produce their ATP by glycolysis. F D) low oxidative fibers are the smallest diameter fibers. S E) low oxidative fibers have a low resistance to fatigue. S Answer Key 1) D 2) B 3) C 4) C 5) C 6) D 7) D 8) C 9) D 10) B 11) C 12) A 13) D 14) B 15) B 16) B 17) E 18) C 19) D 20) B 21) C 22) C 23) C 24) A 25) D 26) C 27) B 28) C 29) E 30) A 31) E 32) D 33) A 34) C 35) A 36) A 37) C 38) B 39) E 40) E 41) C 42) E 43) D 44) B 45) A 46) D 47) D 48) D 49) B 50) D 51) A 52) C 53) A 54) D 55) B 56) D 57) B 58) C 59) A 60) B 61) A 62) E 63) B 64) D 65) A 66) E 67) E 68) B 69) B 70) E ...
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