34 - 1 Notice the following facts about these relations 1 x is SAID OF something x i s a universal 2 x is not SAID OF anything x i s a particular 3

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1. Notice the following facts about these relations: 1. x is SAID OF something x is a universal. 2. x is not SAID OF anything x is a particular. 3. x is PRESENT IN y x is a non-substance and y is a substance. 4. x is not PRESENT IN anything x is a substance. 5. x is neither PRESENT IN anything nor SAID OF anything x is a particular substance (primary substance). 6. x is PRESENT IN y and x is SAID OF z y z . (6) may require amplification. The reason is that if x is PRESENT IN y , then y is a substance and x is a non-substance (e.g., a quality). But if x is a quality and is SAID OF z , then z is a (more specific) quality. So y is a substance and z is a quality. And no quality is a substance. For example, knowledge is PRESENT IN the soul (a substance), and SAID OF grammar (a kind of knowledge). But knowledge is not SAID OF the soul (for the soul is not a kind of knowledge), and knowledge is not PRESENT IN grammar (for grammar is not a substance). 2. Cross-categorial predication 1. Predication within a category (“Socrates is a human,” “a tiger is an animal,” “red is a color”) involves classifying something (whether a particular or a universal) under some higher universal within the same category tree. Predication is a matter of classification. 2. Cross-categorial predication (“Socrates is wise,” “This horse is white”) is more complicated. Here we are predicating an accident (something PRESENT IN a subject) of a substance in which it inheres. 3. Are such (accidental) predications still a matter of classification? Yes. But we are classifying something PRESENT IN a substance, rather than the substance itself. 4.
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This note was uploaded on 01/31/2011 for the course PHYSICS 110 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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34 - 1 Notice the following facts about these relations 1 x is SAID OF something x i s a universal 2 x is not SAID OF anything x i s a particular 3

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