3 - Critique of Pure Reason Lecture notes, February 12,...

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Critique of Pure Reason Lecture notes, February 12, 1997: Possibility, Necessity, Existence G. J. Mattey At the end of the last lecture, I sketched the conclusion of Kant's argument for the applicablity of the concept of causality to objects of experience. Now I will resume the thread of the detailed discussion. The claim was that the time-order of the states of an object cannot be determined through the order of the occurrence of perceptions (the subjective succession does not by itself determine the objective succession). Something more is needed to show that the subjective succession is not arbitrary, not generated by the imagination. This something more is a rule according to which states succeed one another in objects. Such a rule, Kant claimed, must be subject to on exceptions, so that given that an object is in state a at a time, that (and the states of other objects at the same time) is sufficient to bring state b about. In this way, the succession of a perception of a by a perception of b is bound to an objective succession of states a and b in the object. A rule which specifies for a given state, what state must follow it, is a causal law. Thus causal laws are necessary conditions for the determination of the order of succession of objects. Since a determination of the order of succession is required for us (non-arbitrarily) to represent an object as changing, if any change in an object is to be represented, the states of the object must be brought under causal laws. Note that this argument hinges entirely upon how objects must be represented and says nothing about their status independently of the way they are represented. In Kant's terminology, the category of causality applies to appearances only, not to things in themselves. It is the assumption that in representing change we represent things in themselves which led Hume to his
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3 - Critique of Pure Reason Lecture notes, February 12,...

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