Critique of Pure Reason Lecture notes, March 5, 1997: Existence of God G. J. Mattey In the philosophy of Leibniz , God is a necessary being which is the ultimate reason of things. As a necessary being, God's existence is a consequence of God's possibility. God is a substance which contains as much reality as as any being can have "insofar as there is nothing outside it which is independent of it, and insofar as it is the simple consequence of its possible existence" ( Monadology , Section 42). God is the source both of existences and essences (what is real in possibility). In the Wolffian philosophy, God is the most perfect being. The most perfect being combines all the realities that can be combined in one thing, and the realities combined are the greatest realities that can be in a thing. A most perfect being is possible, because there are only realities and no negations in it. Since actuality is a reality, God is actual. Thus the notion of God is that of the ens realissimum , the most real being, as described by Kant as the ideal of pure reason. An ideal is an individual thing determined or determinable by an idea of reason. Kant held that
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