ssyt%202nd%20version%20A%202007

ssyt%202nd%20version%20A%202007 - SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY Fall,...

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Unformatted text preview: SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY Fall, 2007 Professors Henry John-Alder & Sidney Auerbach SECOND EXAMINATION November 12, 2007 Version A NAME:_____________________________ Student ID No.___________________ Seat No.______________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. CHOOSE THE ONE BEST ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. 1. nder normal conditions, which Starling forces favor filtration? U A) apillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure c B) nterstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and plasma osmotic pressure i C) apillary hydrostatic pressure and plasma osmotic pressure c D) apillary hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure c E) nterstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure and interstitital fluid osmotic pressure i 2. he contractile portion of the thin filament is composed of what protein? T A) itin t B) roponin t C) yosin m D) ropomyosin t E) ctin a 3. hich of the following best describes an isotonic contraction? W A) hen the contractile elements shorten, the series elastic elements lengthen, W creating enough tension to move the load. B) hen the contractile elements lengthen, they shorten the elastic elements and W move the load. C) he contractile elements stay the same length as the elastic elements shorten T and move the load. D) hen the contractile elements lengthen, they lengthen the series elastic W elements but do not move the load. E) hen the contractile elements shorten, they lengthen the parallel elastic W elements but do not move the load. 4. he purpose of extrinsic control of arteriolar smooth muscle is to ________. T A) egulate heart rate r B) egulate stroke volume r C) egulate blood flow through specific capillary beds r D) egulate mean arterial pressure r E) egulate cardiac output r 5. n the withdrawal-crossed extension reflex, the ___________ and the __________ I A) ontalateral extensor is inhibited; contralateral flexor is excited c B) psilateral extensor is excited; ipsilateral flexor is inhibited i C) psilateral extensor is excited; contralateral flexor is inhibited i D) psilateral flexor is excited; contralateral flexor is inhibited i E) psilateral flexor is excited; contralateral extensor is inhibited i 6. he ________ is involved in the control of large muscle groups that function in T posture and balance. A) pinothalamic tract s B) halamocortical tract t C) ntrapyramidal tract i D) yramidal tract p E) xtrapyramidal tract e 7. hat is the protein component of the thin filament that binds to calcium thereby W initiating skeletal muscle contraction? A) itin t B) ctin a C) yosin m D) ropomyosin t E) roponin t 8. n comparison to the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit ________. I A) ransports deoxygenated blood t B) as lower resistance to blood flow h C) as lower blood flow h D) s under greater pressure i E) as an equal pressure gradient to drive blood flow h 9. he increased aortic pressure that occurs during systole reflects a(n) ________. T A) ecreased volume of blood within the aorta d B) ecreased resistance of the vasculature d C) ncreased volume of blood in the aorta i D) ncreased resistance of the vasculature i E) ecreased stiffness of the aorta d 10. hat type of receptor detects muscle length? W A) ociceptor n B) uscarinic m C) eta adrenergic b D) uscle spindle m E) olgi tendon organ G 11. ny change in the relative distribution of cardiac output to an organ is typically due A to changes in ________. A) entral venous pressure c B) esistance of that organʹs vascular bed r C) ompliance of that organʹs vascular bed c D) iscosity of the blood moving through that organʹs vascular bed v E) ean arterial pressure m 12. he Law of Laplace equates pressure with surface tension and radius. With this T information, which of the following occurs? A) ith surfactant, surface tension is the same in all alveoli. W B) ithout surfactant, large alveoli collapse into smaller alveoli. W C) ith surfactant, all alveoli are of the same size. W D) ithout surfactant, small alveoli collapse into larger alveoli. W E) ith surfactant, pressure in small alveoli is greater than in larger alveoli. W 13. y convention, blood is colored RED, not blue, in ALL of the following EXCEPT: B A) ulmonary vein p B) ight atrium r C) orta a D) eft ventricle l E) ight renal artery (i.e., artery to the right kidney) r 14. he preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system emerge from the T ________ of the central nervous system. A) rainstem and sacral region of the spinal cord b B) acral region of the spinal cord only s C) horacic region of the spinal cord only t D) umbar region of the spinal cord only l E) horacic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord t 15. hordae tendinae are strands of connective tissue extending from ________ to C ________. A) ortic valves : ventricular myocardium a B) V valves : papillary muscle A C) nferior vena cava : right atrium i D) tria : ventricle a E) emilunar valves : atrial myocardium s 16. he effects of epinephrine on vascular resistance are dependent upon the ________. T A) pecific baroreceptor activated (low or high pressure) s B) elative distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors r C) elative distribution of alpha and beta receptors r D) irection of change in mean arterial pressure d E) oncentration of local metabolites c 17. hich of the following descriptions is TRUE for the parasympathetic nervous W system, but NOT the sympathetic nervous system? A) ostganglionic fibers release acetylcholine. P B) ome ganglia are connected together in a chain. S C) reganglionic fibers release acetylcholine. P D) ome preganglionic neurons originate in the spinal cord. S E) eceptors on effector organs are adrenergic. R 18. he shortening of a skeletal muscle fiber during contraction involves ________. T A) he thin filaments shortening t B) he A bands shortening t C) he distance between Z lines increases t D) he thick filaments shortening t E) he sarcomeres shortening t 19. ith a systolic pressure of 135 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 75 mm Hg, mean W arterial pressure would be ________. A) 35 mm Hg 1 B) 5 mm Hg 9 C) 5 mm Hg 7 D) 0 mm Hg 3 E) 0 mm Hg 6 20. he elastic nature of the large artery walls allows them to act as a ________, T maintaining the driving force for blood flow while the heart is relaxed during diastole. A) on-compliant structure n B) esistor r C) ressure reservoir p D) olume reservoir v E) on-distensible structure n 21. hich of the following describes the effect of end-diastolic volume on stroke W volume? A) n increase in end-diastolic volume stretches ventricular muscle cells to A lengths closer to optimum, increasing the strength of contraction and thereby increasing stroke volume. B) decrease in end-diastolic volume creates a vacuum drawing more blood into A the ventricle increasing stroke volume. C) decrease in end-diastolic volume allows ventricular muscle cells to relax A more during diastole, allowing more blood to return to the heart increasing stroke volume. D) decrease in end-diastolic volume allows cardiac muscle to relax, conserving A energy for the next contraction, thereby increasing stroke volume of that next contraction. E) n increase in end-diastolic volume stretches ventricular muscle cells to A lengths greater than optimum, decreasing the strength of contraction and thereby decreasing stroke volume. 22. n its journey from the atmosphere to the mitochondria, where does oxygen move I by convection (not diffusion)? 1. Atmospheric air to alveoli 2. Alveolar air to pulmonary capillary blood 3. Pulmonary capillary blood to systemic capillary blood 4. Systemic capillary blood to interstitial fluid 5. Interstitial fluid to intracellular fluid A) , 2, and 3 only 1 B) and 5 only 3 C) , 3, and 5 only 1 D) and 3 only 1 E) and 2 only 1 23. hemicals released by metabolically active cells will cause which of the following? C A) ontraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow c B) elaxation of capillary smooth muscle to decrease blood flow r C) elaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle to increase blood flow r D) ontraction of capillary smooth muscle to increase blood flow c E) ontraction of arteriolar smooth muscle to decrease blood flow c 24. n order for crossbridge cycling to occur, the actin-myosin complex must be broken I by the ________. A) inding of ATP to actin b B) inding of ATP to myosin b C) onformational change that occurs as the myosin head changes from the high c to low energy state D) inding of the troponin complex to actin b E) inding of tropomyosin to myosin b 25. arasympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter ________; P sympathetic postganglionic neurons release the neurotransmitter ________. A) pinephrine : norepinephrine e B) orepinephrine : acetylcholine n C) orepinephrine : norepinephrine n D) cetylcholine : norepinephrine a E) cetylcholine : acetylcholine a 26. hich of the following decreases stroke volume? W A) ncrease in atrial pressure i B) ncrease sympathetic activity i C) ncrease parasympathetic activity i D) ecrease in central venous pressure d E) ncrease in filling time i 27. he reduction in organ blood flow that results from a decrease in mean arterial T pressure would be exacerbated by the ________ that occurs as a consequence of the baroreceptor reflex. A) ncreased venous return i B) ncreased peripheral resistance i C) ncreased stroke volume i D) ncreased ventricular contractility i E) ecreased compliance of the veins d 28. hat is the function of T tubules? W A) hey conduct action potentials from the surface to the interior of the muscle T cell. B) ctin and myosin are synthesized here. A C) hey provide elasticity to the muscle. T D) hey store calcium. T E) hey hold the thick filaments to the Z line. T 29. hich of the following would NOT result from an increase in ventricular W contractility? A) ncreased proportion of end-diastolic volume that is ejected i B) ncreased end-diastolic volume i C) ncreased ejection fraction i D) ncreased stroke volume i E) ecreased end-systolic volume d 30. lood flow velocity is greatest in the _____ and slowest in the _____. B A) rteries : capillaries a B) eins : arteries v C) rterioles : veins a D) apillaries : arteries c E) rteries : veins a 31. he compliance of the lung is determined by the elasticity of the lung and ________. T A) urface tension s B) irway resistance a C) ntra-alveolar pressure i D) ranspulmonary pressure t E) olume v 32. hereas the contractile activity of skeletal muscle is called ________, that of cardiac W muscle is ________ because the contraction originates within the musculature itself. A) xtrinsic : intrinsic e B) omatic : autonomic s C) omatic : autorhythmic s D) oluntary : involuntary v E) eurogenic : myogenic n 33. he contraction of the diaphragm results in a(n) ________. T A) ncrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intrai alveolar pressure B) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in d atmospheric pressure C) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intrad alveolar pressure D) ncrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore an increase in intrai alveolar pressure E) ecrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity and therefore a decrease in intrad alveolar pressure 34. f damage to the AV node slowed down conduction through this tissue, what would I be observed on an ECG? A) n inverted T wave a B) longer PR interval a C) larger P wave a D) longer P wave a E) wider QRS complex a 35. hich of the following is NOT altered within seconds to minutes of the W baroreceptor reflex being activated? A) eart rate h B) lood volume b C) troke volume s D) otal peripheral resistance t E) enomotor tone v 36. t rest, expiration is a(n) ________ process that involves ________. A A) ctive : relaxation of the diaphragm a B) assive : relaxation of the internal intercostals p C) assive : relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals p D) ctive : contraction of the internal intercostals a E) ctive : the contraction of the diaphragm a 37. decrease in afterload will lead to a(n) ________. A A) ncreased heart rate i B) ncreased stroke volume i C) ecreased heart rate d D) ecreased stroke volume d E) ecreased cardiac output d 38. _______ provide the pathway for the movement of electrical current between the _ cells of the conduction pathway and the ventricular myocytes. A) esmosomes D B) odium channels S C) ap junctions G D) unny channels F E) otassium channels P 39. uring intense (heavy) exercise, the ability of oxidative phosphorylation to provide D enough ATP for force generation by the skeletal muscle is ________, thereby causing the muscle fiber to derive energy from ________. A) nhanced : glucose e B) nsufficient : fatty acids i C) nhanced : anaerobic glycolysis e D) nhanced : fatty acids e E) nsufficient : anaerobic glycolysis i 40. (n) ________ is composed of connective tissue that transmits force from contracting A skeletal muscle to bone. A) ascicle f B) uscle spindle receptor m C) endon t D) uscle fiber m E) yofibril m 41. t rest, the greatest proportion of blood volume is present within the ________. A A) eart h B) ystemic veins s C) ystemic capillaries s D) ystemic arteries s E) ulmonary veins p 42. _______ refers to the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs in a single _ breath during unforced breathing. A) unctional residual capacity F B) inute ventilation M C) otal lung capacity T D) ital capacity V E) idal volume T 43. onduction through which of the following is slow to allow atria to contract before C the ventricle? A) A node S B) tria a C) undle of His b D) V node A E) urkinje fibers P 44. he volume of air when the lungs are at rest (in between breaths) is ________. T A) idal volume t B) esidual volume r C) otal lung capacity t D) unctional residual capacity f E) ero z 45. pening of which of the following channels contributes to the spontaneous O depolarizaton of pacemaker cells? A) alcium channels only c B) oth calcium and potassium channels b C) oth calcium channels and funny channels b D) unny channels only f E) otassium channels only p 46. hat is occurring during ventricular ejection? W A) he AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves are open as blood is leaving t the ventricles B) he AV valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed as ventricular t pressure is increasing C) he AV and semilunar valves are open as blood is leaving the ventricles t D) he AV valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed as blood is leaving t the ventricles E) he AV and semilunar valves are closed as ventricular pressure is increasing t 47. he balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is modified T primarily by ________. A) oluntary mechanisms v B) he activity of the body t C) remotor cortex p D) ody temperature b E) he cerebellum t 48. he difference between ________ pressure and ________ pressure drives air into and T out of the lungs. A) tmospheric : intrapleural a B) ntrapleural : intra-alveolar i C) entral venous : intracoronary c D) ulmonary venous : atmospheric p E) tmospheric : intra-alveolar a 49. hich of the following best describes the relationship between motor neuron size, W motor unit size, and order of recruitment? A) arge motor neurons : large motor unit : last to be recruited l B) arge motor neurons : small motor unit : first to be recruited l C) arge motor neurons : large motor unit : first to be recruited l D) here is no relationship. T E) arge motor neurons : small motor unit : last to be recruited l 50. s skeletal muscle is further stretched beyond the length where optimum force is A developed, ________. A) he amount of calcium released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum is reduced as t length increases B) he thin filaments are pulled away from one another, thereby reducing their t ability to interact with myosin C) he thin filaments overlap one another, thereby reducing their ability to t interact with myosin D) he thick filaments overlap one another, thereby reducing their ability to t interact with actin E) he thick filaments are pulled away from one another, thereby reducing their t ability to interact with actin Answer key physiology exam 2 version A 2007 1. D 2. E 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. E 7. E 8. B 9. C 10. D 11. B 12. D 13. B 14. A 15. B 16. C 17. A 18. E 19. B 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. C 24. B 25. D 26. D 27. B 28. A 29. B 30. A 31. A 32. E 33. A 34. B 35. B 36. C 37. B 38. C 39. E 40. C 41. B 42. E 43. D 44. D 45. C 46. A 47. B 48. E 49. A 50. B ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course SYS 146:356 taught by Professor John-alder during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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