syst%201st%2007versA%20key - SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY Fall, 2007...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY Fall, 2007 Professors Henry John-Alder & Sidney Auerbach FIRST EXAMINATION 8 OCTOBER 2007 Version A NAME:_____________________________ Student ID No.___________________ Seat No.______________ CHOOSE ONLY THE ONE BEST ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. 1) s an action potential propagates away from the axon hillock, propagation A continues in one direction because ________. A) he region just in front of the action potential is in the absolute refractory t period B) he region just behind the action potential is in the absolute refractory t period C) he region just in front of the action potential is in the relative refractory period t D) he region just behind the action potential is in the relative refractory period t E) hey will travel the path of least resistance t 2) he cornea and lens are ________ surfaces that cause light to converge on a T ________. A) onvex : focal length c B) onvex : focal point c C) oncave : focal point c D) ransparent : focal length t E) oncave : focal length c 3) requency of sound is coded for by ________. F A) he amplitude of the action potentials t B) he number of hair cells stimulated t C) he frequency of action potentials t D) he direction that the stereocilia are stimulated t E) he location of the hair cell stimulated t 4) ________ is a change in membrane potential within the dendrites or cell body that A decays as it travels away from its point of origin. A) ction potential a B) olarization p C) yperpolarization h D) epolarization d E) raded potential g W 5) hich of the following does NOT correctly describe homeostasis? A) n many cases, homeostasis involves negative-feedback regulatory processes i B) hen a measured biological variable such as temperature, pH, or plasma w osmolarity differs from its physiological setpoint, the appropriate homeostatic response is maintained by the error signal between setpoint and measured value C) omeostasis is defined as the maintenance of a nearly constant internal h environment D) omeostasis is defined as the "individual sack of salty water" in which we h each live E) omeostasis involves interactions of multiple organ systems h 6) he process whereby a sensory receptor converts a stimulus modality into a change T in membrane potential is called ________. A) ensory conversion s B) ensory transduction s C) ensory generation s D) ensory production s E) odality conversion m 7) he light-absorbing portion of the photopigment is ________; its sensitivity to a T particular wavelength of light is altered by ________. A) etinal : opsin r B) psin : retinal o C) hosphodiesterase : transducin p D) ransducin : phosphodiesterase t E) psin : transducin o 8) hich of the following statements about sodium is FALSE? W A) here is a chemical force driving sodium ions into the cell. T B) t the resting membrane potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium A ions into the cell. C) t the sodium equilibrium potential, the electrochemical (driving) force for A sodium movement across the plasma membrane is zero. D) t the sodium equilibrium potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium A ions out of the cell. E) t the potassium equilibrium potential, there is an electrical force driving A sodium ions out of the cell. 9) he diffusion of water across a membrane down its concentration gradient is called T ________. A) acilitated diffusion f B) ypertonic assimilation h C) assive transport p D) ulk flow b E) smosis o 10) hich of the following best summarizes the rationale for using non-human animals W as experimental models for human biomedical research? A) hysiological traits of humans are largely identical from one human to the next p B) hysiology is the study of biological processes that allow life to exist p C) nherited physiological traits are coded in DNA or some other heritable i mechanism D) ll explanations of how organ systems work are found in lower levels of a biological organization E) ll living species of animals evolved through descent with modification a from common ancestors, if not a single common ancestor 11) he repolarization phase of the action potential in a neuron is driven by the T ________. A) pening of calcium channels o B) nactivation of sodium channels and opening of potassium channels i C) losure of potassium channels c D) pening of sodium channels and closure of potassium channels o E) pening of sodium channels o 12) hat two structures make up the forebrain? W A) rainstem and spinal cord b B) erebrum and diencephalon c C) erebrum and cerebellum c D) halamus and hypothalamus t E) rainstem and cerebellum b 13) hich of the following would NOT increase the rate of diffusion of a fat soluble W substance across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane? A) reater concentration gradient g B) reater number of protein carriers g C) reater lipid solubility g D) igher temperature h E) reater available surface area g 14) he ________ contains the primary visual cortex. T A) edial lobe m B) ccipital lobe o C) rontal lobe f D) arietal lobe p E) emporal lobe t 15) he chemical force for which of the following ions is directed into the cell? T A) oth sodium and chloride b B) odium only s C) alcium only c D) oth potassium and sodium b E) otassium only p 16) uring which of the following states are the majority of voltage-gated sodium D channels closed and incapable of opening? A) t the resting membrane potential a B) uring the after-hyperpolarization d C) uring the relative refractory period d D) uring the absolute refractory period d E) uring depolarization d 17) he modality to which a receptor responds best is called the ________. T A) dequate stimulus a B) east energy stimulus l C) ppropriate modality a D) ppropriate stimulus a E) omposite modality c 18) n the absence of light, the membrane potential of a photoreceptor is relatively I ________ by the presence of open ________ channels. A) epolarized : sodium d B) yperpolarized : potassium h C) epolarized : calcium d D) epolarized : potassium d E) yperpolarized : sodium h 19) membrane permeable to water separates a chamber into two compartments: A A and B. Compartment A contains a 10 mM solution of non-permeating solute, whereas compartment B contains a 40 mM solution of non-permeating solute. Which of the following statements is true? A) ater will move from side B to A, but solute will not move. W B) ater will move from side A to B, but solute will not move. W C) olute will move from side B to A, and water will move from side A to B. S D) olute will move from side A to B, and water will move from side B to A. S E) oth water and solute will move from side B to A. B 20) iven a cation with an equilibrium potential of -55 mV. If the plasma membrane of G the cell is permeable only to this ion, then which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential? A) ore positive than -55 mV M B) 55 mV + C) ore negative than -55 mV M D) 55 mV E) 70 mV 21) he movement of glucose across the apical surface of the epithelial cell by secondary T transporters is coupled to the ________ gradient that is maintained by the ________ on the basolateral surface of the epithelial cell. A) a+ : Na+/K+ pump N B) + : K+ channel K C) a+ : Na+ channel N D) 2+ : Na+/K+ pump Ca E) + : K+pump K 22) _______ is the result of the unequal distribution of positive and negative ions across _ the plasma membrane. A) hemical driving force C B) lectrochemical driving force E C) embrane potential M D) xtracellular potential E E) hemical gradient C 23) hich of the following characteristics does NOT describe an action potential? W A) apid reversal of membrane potential r B) arge depolarization l C) apid increase in sodium permeability r D) t maintains its amplitude over long distances i E) arge increase in intracellular sodium concentration l 24) ound waves traveling through the air initiate a vibration of the ________. The S sound waves are then transmitted along the ________ to the cochlea. A) val window : eustachian tube o B) ound window : saccule r C) accule : eustachian tube s D) ympanic membrane : ossicles t E) val window : ossicles o 25) hat area of the brain controls language comprehension? W A) ernickes area W B) ypothalamus h C) mygdala a D) rocas area B E) imbic system l 26) n action potential originates at the ________ and travels along the axon until it A reaches the ________. A) endrite : axon terminal d B) xon terminal : axon hillock a C) xon hillock : dendrite a D) endrite : axon hillock d E) xon hillock : axon terminal a 27) hich of the following statements about the somatosensory system is INCORRECT? W A) arietal lobe cortex contains an upside down somatotopic map of the body P surface. B) ace and hands have a disproportionately large representation in F somatosensory cortex. C) he spinothalamic tract transmits the sensation of burning, throbbing T unfocussed pain. D) ouch stimuli are processed in the contralateral parietal lobe of cerebral cortex. T E) xons in the dorsal column tract cross to the contralateral side in the spinal A cord. 28) he hair cells are embedded within endolymph, thus, when a potassium channel T opens, potassium moves ________ the cell, causing it to ________. A) nto : hyperpolarize i B) nto : depolarize i C) ut of : depolarize o D) ut of : hyperpolarize o E) qually into and out of : maintain its polarized state e 29) cell is placed in a 200 mM NaCl solution. This solution is ________ and the cell A will ________. A) ypertonic : swell h B) sotonic : not change size i C) ypotonic : swell h D) ypertonic : shrink h E) ypotonic : shrink h 30) s a membranes permeability to a particular ion increases, membrane potential will A move ________ that ions ________. A) loser to : Nernst equilibrium potential c B) way from : Nernst electrochemical gradient a C) way from : electrical gradient a D) loser to : Nernst electrochemical gradient c E) way from : Nernst equilibrium potential a 31) hich of the receptors listed below is a receptor for acetylcholine that is W metabotropic? A) icotinic receptors n B) uscarinic receptors m C) eissners corpuscles M D) drenergic receptors a E) hotoreceptors p 32) he inside of a resting neuron has a ________ charge relative to the outside of a cell T due to the presence of a greater number of ________ compared to ___________in intracellular fluid. A) egative : anions : cations n B) egative : cations : anions n C) eutral : cations : anions n D) ositive : cations : anions p E) ositive : anions : cations p 33) he binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptor at an inhibitory synapse can lead to T the ________ of ________ channels. A) losure : potassium c B) pening : sodium o C) pening : calcium o D) pening : chloride o E) losure : chloride c 34) n facilitated diffusion, ________. I A) molecule is moved with its concentration gradient while Na is moved against a its concentration gradient B) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient while Na is moved with a its concentration gradient C) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule, but no energy is required D) molecule is moved with its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule, and no additional energy is directly required E) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule and requires energy 35) omatosensory receptors that respond to vibration are_______ and receptors that S respond to pain are_____________. A) ree Nerve Endings; Meissners Corpuscles F B) acinian Corpuscles; Meissners Corpuscles P C) ree Nerve Endings; Pacinian Corpuscles F D) acinian Corpuscles; Free Nerve Endings P E) eissners Corpuscles; Pacinian Corpuscles M 36) s the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential increases above threshold, A the time between each action potential will ________, thereby increasing the ________ of the action potentials. A) ot be altered : amplitude n B) ecrease : amplitude d C) ncrease : amplitude i D) ncrease : frequency i E) ecrease : frequency d 37) nformation is transmitted from neuron to neuron across the chemical synapse via I a(n) ________. A) ollateral potential c B) eurotransmitter n C) ction potential a D) raded potential g E) hormone 38) f a positively charged ion is more concentrated outside the cell, the forces required I to balance the chemical gradient would be directed ________. Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be ________ charged. A) utward : positively o B) nward : positively i C) nward : negatively i D) utward : neutrally o E) utward : negatively o 39) ne of the main functions of the cardiopulmonary organ system is to maintain a O favorable gradient for the continual movement of molecular oxygen from the atmosphere to mitochondria. Beginning with this observation, a physiologist might ask "How (or by what mechanism) does the heart pump oxygenated blood through the arterial system?" To begin to answer this question, the most appropriate approach would be: A) comparative analysis of population dynamics in human populations at high a elevation (e.g., Peruvian Andes) versus sea level (e.g., coastal United States) B) n analysis of the effect of reduced atmospheric oxygen on an individual's a aerobic exercise performance C) n analysis of the contractile properties of cardiac muscle a D) n analysis of the role of molecular oxygen in the mitochondrial electron a transport chain E) n anatomical analysis of the position of the mammalian heart with respect to a the lungs 40) _______ describe a region of skin that, when activated, will result in the stimulation _ of a particular afferent neuron. A) otor units M B) abeled lines L C) eceptive fields R D) euronal fields N E) econd-order neurons S 41) ommunication across a synapse is initiated by the release of a neurotransmitter C from the ________ region of the neuron. A) erisynaptic p B) xon hillock a C) endritic d D) xon terminal a E) ostsynaptic p 42) hich of the following structures is found primarily in white matter? W A) xon terminals a B) euron cell bodies n C) ynapses s D) yelinated axons m E) endrites d 43) n anion has an equilibrium potential of +40 mV. What direction are the chemical A and electrical forces acting on the anion at a membrane potential (+70 mV)? A) he chemical force is directed into the cell and the electrical force is directed T out of the cell. B) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed into the cell. B C) he chemical force is directed out of the cell and the electrical force is T directed into the cell. D) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed out of the cell. B E) here is insufficient information to answer this question. T 44) he influx of calcium into the axon terminal of a chemical synapse is responsible for T the ________. A) ovement of calcium through gap junctions m B) ermination of an action potential t C) iffusion of the neurotransmitter across the membrane and into the cleft d D) nitiation of an action potential i E) usion of vesicles to the membrane f 45) hich of the following does NOT directly determine the rate at which an ion will W move by diffusion across a membrane? A) ermeability of the membrane p B) oncentration gradient c C) agnitude of driving force m D) embrane potential m E) mount of ATP available a 46) hich of the following transport mechanisms requires energy? W A) oth primary active transport and facilitated diffusion b B) acilitated diffusion only f C) oth primary and secondary active transport b D) econdary active transport only s E) rimary active transport only p 47) hat class of receptor detects blood pressure? W A) ociceptor n B) smoreceptor o C) xteroceptor e D) nteroceptor i E) roprioceptor p 48) eurotransmitter release occurs by what mechanism? N A) ndocytosis e B) rimary active transport p C) econdary active transport s D) xocytosis e E) iffusion d 49) f the following, the simplest definition of physiology is: O A) he study of molecular complexes responsible for cellular functions t B) comprehensive analysis of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems a C) escent with modification d D) he study of how animals work (or, more generally, how organisms work) t E) he comparative study of animals adapted to extreme environments t 50) he term "homeostasis" was coined, or invented, by: T A) ugust Krogh A B) alter Cannon W C) indy Stanfield C D) illiam Germann W E) laude Bernard C ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course SYS 146:356 taught by Professor John-alder during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online