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Unformatted text preview: SYSTEMS PHYSIOLOGY
Fall, 2007 Professors Henry John-Alder & Sidney Auerbach FIRST EXAMINATION 8 OCTOBER 2007 Version A NAME:_____________________________ Student ID No.___________________ Seat No.______________ CHOOSE ONLY THE ONE BEST ANSWER FOR EACH QUESTION. 1) s an action potential propagates away from the axon hillock, propagation A continues in one direction because ________. A) he region just in front of the action potential is in the absolute refractory t period B) he region just behind the action potential is in the absolute refractory t period C) he region just in front of the action potential is in the relative refractory period t D) he region just behind the action potential is in the relative refractory period t E) hey will travel the path of least resistance t 2) he cornea and lens are ________ surfaces that cause light to converge on a T ________. A) onvex : focal length c B) onvex : focal point c C) oncave : focal point c D) ransparent : focal length t E) oncave : focal length c 3) requency of sound is coded for by ________. F A) he amplitude of the action potentials t B) he number of hair cells stimulated t C) he frequency of action potentials t D) he direction that the stereocilia are stimulated t E) he location of the hair cell stimulated t 4) ________ is a change in membrane potential within the dendrites or cell body that A decays as it travels away from its point of origin. A) ction potential a B) olarization p C) yperpolarization h D) epolarization d E) raded potential g W 5) hich of the following does NOT correctly describe homeostasis? A) n many cases, homeostasis involves negative-feedback regulatory processes i B) hen a measured biological variable such as temperature, pH, or plasma w osmolarity differs from its physiological setpoint, the appropriate homeostatic response is maintained by the error signal between setpoint and measured value C) omeostasis is defined as the maintenance of a nearly constant internal h environment D) omeostasis is defined as the "individual sack of salty water" in which we h each live E) omeostasis involves interactions of multiple organ systems h 6) he process whereby a sensory receptor converts a stimulus modality into a change T in membrane potential is called ________. A) ensory conversion s B) ensory transduction s C) ensory generation s D) ensory production s E) odality conversion m 7) he light-absorbing portion of the photopigment is ________; its sensitivity to a T particular wavelength of light is altered by ________. A) etinal : opsin r B) psin : retinal o C) hosphodiesterase : transducin p D) ransducin : phosphodiesterase t E) psin : transducin o 8) hich of the following statements about sodium is FALSE? W A) here is a chemical force driving sodium ions into the cell. T B) t the resting membrane potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium A ions into the cell. C) t the sodium equilibrium potential, the electrochemical (driving) force for A sodium movement across the plasma membrane is zero. D) t the sodium equilibrium potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium A ions out of the cell. E) t the potassium equilibrium potential, there is an electrical force driving A sodium ions out of the cell. 9) he diffusion of water across a membrane down its concentration gradient is called T ________. A) acilitated diffusion f B) ypertonic assimilation h C) assive transport p D) ulk flow b E) smosis o 10) hich of the following best summarizes the rationale for using non-human animals W as experimental models for human biomedical research? A) hysiological traits of humans are largely identical from one human to the next p B) hysiology is the study of biological processes that allow life to exist p C) nherited physiological traits are coded in DNA or some other heritable i mechanism D) ll explanations of how organ systems work are found in lower levels of a biological organization E) ll living species of animals evolved through descent with modification a from common ancestors, if not a single common ancestor 11) he repolarization phase of the action potential in a neuron is driven by the T ________. A) pening of calcium channels o B) nactivation of sodium channels and opening of potassium channels i C) losure of potassium channels c D) pening of sodium channels and closure of potassium channels o E) pening of sodium channels o 12) hat two structures make up the forebrain? W A) rainstem and spinal cord b B) erebrum and diencephalon c C) erebrum and cerebellum c D) halamus and hypothalamus t E) rainstem and cerebellum b 13) hich of the following would NOT increase the rate of diffusion of a fat soluble W substance across the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane? A) reater concentration gradient g B) reater number of protein carriers g C) reater lipid solubility g D) igher temperature h E) reater available surface area g 14) he ________ contains the primary visual cortex. T A) edial lobe m B) ccipital lobe o C) rontal lobe f D) arietal lobe p E) emporal lobe t 15) he chemical force for which of the following ions is directed into the cell? T A) oth sodium and chloride b B) odium only s C) alcium only c D) oth potassium and sodium b E) otassium only p 16) uring which of the following states are the majority of voltage-gated sodium D channels closed and incapable of opening? A) t the resting membrane potential a B) uring the after-hyperpolarization d C) uring the relative refractory period d D) uring the absolute refractory period d E) uring depolarization d 17) he modality to which a receptor responds best is called the ________. T A) dequate stimulus a B) east energy stimulus l C) ppropriate modality a D) ppropriate stimulus a E) omposite modality c 18) n the absence of light, the membrane potential of a photoreceptor is relatively I ________ by the presence of open ________ channels. A) epolarized : sodium d B) yperpolarized : potassium h C) epolarized : calcium d D) epolarized : potassium d E) yperpolarized : sodium h 19) membrane permeable to water separates a chamber into two compartments: A A and B. Compartment A contains a 10 mM solution of non-permeating solute, whereas compartment B contains a 40 mM solution of non-permeating solute. Which of the following statements is true? A) ater will move from side B to A, but solute will not move. W B) ater will move from side A to B, but solute will not move. W C) olute will move from side B to A, and water will move from side A to B. S D) olute will move from side A to B, and water will move from side B to A. S E) oth water and solute will move from side B to A. B 20) iven a cation with an equilibrium potential of -55 mV. If the plasma membrane of G the cell is permeable only to this ion, then which of the following best describes the resting membrane potential? A) ore positive than -55 mV M B) 55 mV + C) ore negative than -55 mV M D) 55 mV E) 70 mV 21) he movement of glucose across the apical surface of the epithelial cell by secondary T transporters is coupled to the ________ gradient that is maintained by the ________ on the basolateral surface of the epithelial cell. A) a+ : Na+/K+ pump N B) + : K+ channel K C) a+ : Na+ channel N D) 2+ : Na+/K+ pump Ca E) + : K+pump K 22) _______ is the result of the unequal distribution of positive and negative ions across _ the plasma membrane. A) hemical driving force C B) lectrochemical driving force E C) embrane potential M D) xtracellular potential E E) hemical gradient C 23) hich of the following characteristics does NOT describe an action potential? W A) apid reversal of membrane potential r B) arge depolarization l C) apid increase in sodium permeability r D) t maintains its amplitude over long distances i E) arge increase in intracellular sodium concentration l 24) ound waves traveling through the air initiate a vibration of the ________. The S sound waves are then transmitted along the ________ to the cochlea. A) val window : eustachian tube o B) ound window : saccule r C) accule : eustachian tube s D) ympanic membrane : ossicles t E) val window : ossicles o 25) hat area of the brain controls language comprehension? W A) ernickes area W B) ypothalamus h C) mygdala a D) rocas area B E) imbic system l 26) n action potential originates at the ________ and travels along the axon until it A reaches the ________. A) endrite : axon terminal d B) xon terminal : axon hillock a C) xon hillock : dendrite a D) endrite : axon hillock d E) xon hillock : axon terminal a 27) hich of the following statements about the somatosensory system is INCORRECT? W A) arietal lobe cortex contains an upside down somatotopic map of the body P surface. B) ace and hands have a disproportionately large representation in F somatosensory cortex. C) he spinothalamic tract transmits the sensation of burning, throbbing T unfocussed pain. D) ouch stimuli are processed in the contralateral parietal lobe of cerebral cortex. T E) xons in the dorsal column tract cross to the contralateral side in the spinal A cord. 28) he hair cells are embedded within endolymph, thus, when a potassium channel T opens, potassium moves ________ the cell, causing it to ________. A) nto : hyperpolarize i B) nto : depolarize i C) ut of : depolarize o D) ut of : hyperpolarize o E) qually into and out of : maintain its polarized state e 29) cell is placed in a 200 mM NaCl solution. This solution is ________ and the cell A will ________. A) ypertonic : swell h B) sotonic : not change size i C) ypotonic : swell h D) ypertonic : shrink h E) ypotonic : shrink h 30) s a membranes permeability to a particular ion increases, membrane potential will A move ________ that ions ________. A) loser to : Nernst equilibrium potential c B) way from : Nernst electrochemical gradient a C) way from : electrical gradient a D) loser to : Nernst electrochemical gradient c E) way from : Nernst equilibrium potential a 31) hich of the receptors listed below is a receptor for acetylcholine that is W metabotropic? A) icotinic receptors n B) uscarinic receptors m C) eissners corpuscles M D) drenergic receptors a E) hotoreceptors p 32) he inside of a resting neuron has a ________ charge relative to the outside of a cell T due to the presence of a greater number of ________ compared to ___________in intracellular fluid. A) egative : anions : cations n B) egative : cations : anions n C) eutral : cations : anions n D) ositive : cations : anions p E) ositive : anions : cations p 33) he binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptor at an inhibitory synapse can lead to T the ________ of ________ channels. A) losure : potassium c B) pening : sodium o C) pening : calcium o D) pening : chloride o E) losure : chloride c 34) n facilitated diffusion, ________. I A) molecule is moved with its concentration gradient while Na is moved against a its concentration gradient B) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient while Na is moved with a its concentration gradient C) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule, but no energy is required D) molecule is moved with its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule, and no additional energy is directly required E) molecule is moved against its concentration gradient with the assistance of a a protein carrier molecule and requires energy 35) omatosensory receptors that respond to vibration are_______ and receptors that S respond to pain are_____________. A) ree Nerve Endings; Meissners Corpuscles F B) acinian Corpuscles; Meissners Corpuscles P C) ree Nerve Endings; Pacinian Corpuscles F D) acinian Corpuscles; Free Nerve Endings P E) eissners Corpuscles; Pacinian Corpuscles M 36) s the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic potential increases above threshold, A the time between each action potential will ________, thereby increasing the ________ of the action potentials. A) ot be altered : amplitude n B) ecrease : amplitude d C) ncrease : amplitude i D) ncrease : frequency i E) ecrease : frequency d 37) nformation is transmitted from neuron to neuron across the chemical synapse via I a(n) ________. A) ollateral potential c B) eurotransmitter n C) ction potential a D) raded potential g E) hormone 38) f a positively charged ion is more concentrated outside the cell, the forces required I to balance the chemical gradient would be directed ________. Thus, the equilibrium potential for this ion would be ________ charged. A) utward : positively o B) nward : positively i C) nward : negatively i D) utward : neutrally o E) utward : negatively o 39) ne of the main functions of the cardiopulmonary organ system is to maintain a O favorable gradient for the continual movement of molecular oxygen from the atmosphere to mitochondria. Beginning with this observation, a physiologist might ask "How (or by what mechanism) does the heart pump oxygenated blood through the arterial system?" To begin to answer this question, the most appropriate approach would be: A) comparative analysis of population dynamics in human populations at high a elevation (e.g., Peruvian Andes) versus sea level (e.g., coastal United States) B) n analysis of the effect of reduced atmospheric oxygen on an individual's a aerobic exercise performance C) n analysis of the contractile properties of cardiac muscle a D) n analysis of the role of molecular oxygen in the mitochondrial electron a transport chain E) n anatomical analysis of the position of the mammalian heart with respect to a the lungs 40) _______ describe a region of skin that, when activated, will result in the stimulation _ of a particular afferent neuron. A) otor units M B) abeled lines L C) eceptive fields R D) euronal fields N E) econd-order neurons S 41) ommunication across a synapse is initiated by the release of a neurotransmitter C from the ________ region of the neuron. A) erisynaptic p B) xon hillock a C) endritic d D) xon terminal a E) ostsynaptic p 42) hich of the following structures is found primarily in white matter? W A) xon terminals a B) euron cell bodies n C) ynapses s D) yelinated axons m E) endrites d 43) n anion has an equilibrium potential of +40 mV. What direction are the chemical A and electrical forces acting on the anion at a membrane potential (+70 mV)? A) he chemical force is directed into the cell and the electrical force is directed T out of the cell. B) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed into the cell. B C) he chemical force is directed out of the cell and the electrical force is T directed into the cell. D) oth the chemical and electrical forces are directed out of the cell. B E) here is insufficient information to answer this question. T 44) he influx of calcium into the axon terminal of a chemical synapse is responsible for T the ________. A) ovement of calcium through gap junctions m B) ermination of an action potential t C) iffusion of the neurotransmitter across the membrane and into the cleft d D) nitiation of an action potential i E) usion of vesicles to the membrane f 45) hich of the following does NOT directly determine the rate at which an ion will W move by diffusion across a membrane? A) ermeability of the membrane p B) oncentration gradient c C) agnitude of driving force m D) embrane potential m E) mount of ATP available a 46) hich of the following transport mechanisms requires energy? W A) oth primary active transport and facilitated diffusion b B) acilitated diffusion only f C) oth primary and secondary active transport b D) econdary active transport only s E) rimary active transport only p 47) hat class of receptor detects blood pressure? W A) ociceptor n B) smoreceptor o C) xteroceptor e D) nteroceptor i E) roprioceptor p 48) eurotransmitter release occurs by what mechanism? N A) ndocytosis e B) rimary active transport p C) econdary active transport s D) xocytosis e E) iffusion d 49) f the following, the simplest definition of physiology is: O A) he study of molecular complexes responsible for cellular functions t B) comprehensive analysis of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems a C) escent with modification d D) he study of how animals work (or, more generally, how organisms work) t E) he comparative study of animals adapted to extreme environments t 50) he term "homeostasis" was coined, or invented, by: T A) ugust Krogh A B) alter Cannon W C) indy Stanfield C D) illiam Germann W E) laude Bernard C ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course SYS 146:356 taught by Professor John-alder during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '08