ch.15 motivating employees

ch.15 motivating employees - Chapter 16 Motivating...

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Chapter 16 Motivating Employees TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS WHAT IS MOTIVATION? 1. Motivation is a result of an interaction between a person and a situation. (True; easy; p. 452) 2. The three key elements in the definition of motivation are energy, direction, and achievement. (False; difficult; p. 452) 3. High levels of effort don’t necessarily lead to favorable job performance unless the effort is channeled in a direction that benefits the organization. (True; easy; p. 452) EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 4. The best-known theory of motivation is probably McGregor’s Theories X and Y. (False; easy; p. 453) 5. Maslow argued that each level in the needs hierarchy must be substantially satisfied before the next is activated. (True; moderate; p. 454) 6. Lower-order needs are satisfied internally while higher-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally. (False; moderate; p. 454) 7. The two-factor theory is also called Theory X and Theory Y. (False; easy; p. 455) 8. Herzberg believed that the data from his study suggested that the opposite of satisfaction is dissatisfaction. (False; moderate; p. 455) CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 9. Based on McClelland’s three-needs theory, high achievers perform best when the odds are against them. (False; moderate; p. 456) 10. The best managers are high in the need for power and high in the need for affiliation. (False; difficult; p. 456) 18
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11. Reinforcement theory is related to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. (False; moderate; p. 460) 12. The key to reinforcement theory is that it ignores factors such as goals, expectations, and needs and focuses solely on what happens to a person when he or she takes some action. (True; difficult; p. 460) 13. Job design refers to the way tasks are combined to form complete jobs. (True; easy; p. 460) 14. Adding vertical depth to a job is called job enlargement. (False; moderate; p. 460) 15. Job enlargement increases job depth. (False; easy; p. 461) 16. When a mail sorter’s job is expanded to include mail delivery, the mail sorter has experienced job enlargement. (True; easy; p. 461) 17. In the job characteristics model, skill variety refers to the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. (False; moderate; p. 462) 18. According to the job characteristics model, task identity is not important. (False; moderate; p. 462) 19. According to equity theory, a person who earns $50,000 will be less satisfied with his/her pay than a person who earns $100,000. (False; moderate; p. 464) 20. Equity theory has three referent categories: other, system, and self. (True; moderate; p. 465) 21. The three variables in Vroom’s expectancy theory are valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. (True; moderate; p. 466) 22. Vroom would say that if a person values an outcome, his/her effort to obtain that outcome will always be great. (False; moderate; 466) CURRENT ISSUES IN MOTIVATION 23. Equity theory has a relatively strong following in the United States.
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