lecture 7 - Sunlight Reduced geological compounds(rocks...

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Unformatted text preview: Sunlight Reduced geological compounds (rocks, inorganic compounds) (Reduced) biological macromolecules (starch, fats) Energy CATABOLISM Phototrophy Lithotrophy Organotrophy ATP ANABOLISM Carbon, nitrogen, water Biosynthesis Oxidation-Reduction Reactions (Redox reactions) • Redox reactions yield the most free energy, and are central to metabolism. • Electrons passed from A to B: A is oxidized, B is reduced L oss of E lectrons = O xidation (LEO) G ain of E lectrons = R eduction (GER) • H+, NADH: good electron donors , very reduced, easily give up electrons • O 2 : good electron acceptors , very oxidized, readily accept electrons Gibbs Free Energy • Δ G measures free energy change of a reaction • Δ G must be negative for a reaction to occur • Δ G depends on the reactant concentrations – Low product concentration can drive reaction • Reactions do not always occur even if Δ G <0 • Activation energy A+B C+D- + Enzymes Catalyze Reactions ¡ Enzymes are protein catalysts ¡ Increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy , and is not transformed during the reaction ¡ Couples energy-yielding reactions to energy- requiring reactions ¡ Enzymes have specific binding sites- Only react with substrates that “fit”...
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lecture 7 - Sunlight Reduced geological compounds(rocks...

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